Helminthomorpha

Reconstruction of Acantherpestes major from Scudder (1882).

Belongs within: Diplopoda.
Contains: Colobognatha, Eugnatha.

The Helminthomorpha is a clade of millipedes ancestrally characterised by the presence of more than 21 trunk segments in adults, though this has been subsequently reduced in some subclades. Crown-group helminthomorphs are also distinguished by the modification in males of at least one pair of legs on the seventh trunk segment into intromittent gonopods (Wilson 2005b).

<==Helminthomorpha [Proterandria]W05b
    |  i. s.: Siphoniulus Pocock 1894 [Siphoniulida, Siphoniulidae, Siphoniuloidea]SS03
    |           |--*S. albus Pocock 1894SS03
    |           `--S. neotropicus Hoffman 1979SS03
    |         Hexecontasoma Hannibal 2000 [Hexecontasomatidae]H00
    |           `--*H. carinatum Hannibal 2000H00
    |--+--Pleurojulus Fritsch 1899 [Pleurojulida]W05b
    |  `--+--ColobognathaWA04
    |     `--EugnathaWA04
    `--Archipolypoda [Macrosterni, Palaeocoxopleura]WA04
         |  i. s.: Anaxeodesmus Wilson 2005W05a
         |           `--*A. diambonotus Wilson 2005W05a
         |         Palaeodesmus Wilson & Anderson 2004WA04
         |           `--*P. tuberculata (Brade-Birks 1923) [=Kampecaris tuberculata]WA04
         |         Albadesmus Wilson & Anderson 2004WA04
         |           `--*A. almondi Wilson & Anderson 2004WA04
         |         Pneumodesmus Wilson & Anderson 2004WA04
         |           `--*P. newmani Wilson & Anderson 2004WA04
         |         Archiulus [Archiulidae]WA04
         |         Anthracodesmus Peach 1899WA04
         |           `--*A. macconochiei Peach 1899WA04
         |         PattoniaWA04
         |--+--Archidesmus Peach 1882 [Archidesmida, Archidesmidae]WA04
         |  |    `--*A. macnicoli Peach 1882WA04
         |  `--Cowiedesmus Wilson & Anderson 2004 [Cowiedesmida, Cowiedesmidae]WA04
         |       `--C. eroticopodus Wilson & Anderson 2004WA04
         `--Euphoberiidae [Euphoberiida]WA04
              |--Euphoberia Meek & Worthen 1868WA04
              |    `--E. horridaWA04
              |--Acantherpestes Meek & Worthen 1868WA04
              |    |--A. majorK-P83
              |    `--A. vicinusK-P83
              `--Myriacantherpestes Burke 1979WA04
                   |--M. bradebirski Burke 1979LH02
                   |--M. clarkorum (Burke 1973)LH02
                   |--M. excrescens (Janssen 1940) [=Trigonocarpus excrescens]LH02
                   |--M. ferox (Salter 1863)LH02
                   |--M. hystricosus (Scudder 1890)LH02
                   `--M. inequalis (Scudder 1890)LH02

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[H00] Hannibal, J. T. 2000. Hexecontasoma, a new helminthomorph millipede (Hexecontasomatidae n. fam.) from the Mazon Creek, Illinois, fauna (Carboniferous, North America). Fragmenta Faunistica 43 (Suppl): 19–35.

[K-P83] Kukalová-Peck, J. 1983. Origin of the insect wing and wing articulation from the arthropodan leg. Canadian Journal of Zoology 61: 1618–1669.

[LH02] Lemay, S., & J. T. Hannibal. 2002. Trigonocarpus excrescens Janssen, 1940, a supposed seed from the Pennsylvanian of Illinois, is a milliped (Diplopoda: Euphoberiidae). Kirtlandia 53: 37–40.

[SS03] Sierwald, P., W. A. Shear, R. M. Shelley & J. E. Bond. 2003. Millipede phylogeny revisited in the light of the enigmatic order Siphoniulida. Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research 41: 87–99.

[WA04] Wilson, H. M., & L. I. Anderson. 2004. Morphology and taxonomy of Paleozoic millipedes (Diplopoda: Chilognatha: Archipolypoda) from Scotland. Journal of Paleontology 78 (1): 169–184.

[W05a] Wilson, H. M. 2005a. A new genus of archipolypodan millipede from the Coseley Lagerstätte, Upper Carboniferous, UK. Palaeontology 48 (5): 1097–1100.

[W05b] Wilson, H. M. 2005b. Zosterogrammida, a new order of millipedes from the Middle Silurian of Scotland and the Upper Carboniferous of Euramerica. Palaeontology 48 (5): 1101–1110.

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