Western grass dart Taractrocera papyria agraulia, copyright Fred Hort.

Belongs within: Hesperiidae.
Contains: Telicota, Ocybadistes, Suniana.

The Hesperiinae are a cosmopolitan group of skippers whose larvae feed on species of monocotyledons, particularly on grasses (Braby 2000). The type genus Hesperia, the branded skippers, is most diverse in North America and includes species with long pointed fore wings and usually a curved medial band of pale spots on the underside of the hind wing.

Characters (from Braby 2000): Length of antenna variable, less or greater than half length of costa of fore wing; labial palp with third segment porrect or erect, short and stout, or long and slender; fore wing with vein M2 downwardly curved near origin, arising closer to M3 than M1; hind wing with cell normal with discocellular vein between M2 and M3 angled or inclined towards tornus or termen, termen rounded or distinctly lobed and produced at tornus.

    |  |--PradaJ03
    |  `--TiacelliaJ03
    |    |--H. agna Moore 1865WM66
    |    |--H. aracincthusR26
    |    |--H. columbiaS72
    |    |--H. commaP01
    |    |--H. conjunctaR13
    |    |--H. divodasa Moore 1865WM66
    |    |--H. evalthe [=Papilio evalthe]L02
    |    |--H. fritillumR26
    |    |--H. harpalusS72
    |    |    |--H. h. harpalusS72
    |    |    |--H. h. dodgeiS72
    |    |    |--H. h. leussleriS72
    |    |    |--H. h. oregoniaS72
    |    |    `--H. h. yosemiteS72
    |    |--H. immaculataM89
    |    |--H. jubaS72
    |    |--H. leonardusS72
    |    |--H. licas [=Papilio licas]L02
    |    |--H. lindseyiS72
    |    |--H. lineaR26
    |    |--H. lineolaP01
    |    |--H. malvaeL02
    |    |--H. meteaS72
    |    |--H. paniscusR26
    |    |--H. proteusL02
    |    |--H. sidaeR26
    |    |--H. tagesR26
    |    `--H. tristisR26
       |  `--+--Oriens angustula (Herrich-Schäffer 1869)J03, B2000
       |     `--Cephrenes Waterhouse & Lyell 1914J03, B2000
       |          |--C. augiades (Felder 1860)B2000
       |          |    |--C. a. augiadesB2000
       |          |    `--C. a. sperthias (Felder 1862)B2000
       |          `--C. trichopepla (Lower 1908)B12
          |  |--KobronaJ03
          |  |--TelicotaJ03
          |  `--+--Mimene Joicey & Talbot 1917J03, B2000
          |     |    `--M. atropatene (Fruhstorfer 1911)B2000
          |     `--Sabera Swinhoe 1908J03, B2000
          |          |--S. caesina (Hewitson 1866)B2000
          |          |    |--S. c. caesinaB2000
          |          |    `--S. c. albifascia (Miskin 1889)B2000
          |          |--S. dobboe (Plötz 1885)B2000
          |          |    |--S. d. dobboeB2000
          |          |    `--S. d. autoleon (Miskin 1889)B2000
          |          `--S. fuliginosa (Miskin 1889)B2000
          `--+--Arrhenes Mabille 1904J03
             |    |--A. dschilus (Plötz 1885)B2000
             |    |    |--A. d. dschilusB2000
             |    |    `--A. d. iris (Waterhouse 1932)B2000
             |    `--A. marnas (Felder 1860)B2000
             |         |--A. m. marnasB2000
             |         `--A. m. affinis (Waterhouse & Lyell 1912)B2000
                      `--Taractrocera Butler 1870J03, B2000
                           |--T. anisomorpha (Lower 1911)B12
                           |--T. dolon (Plötz 1884)B2000
                           |    |--T. d. dolonB2000
                           |    `--T. d. diomedes Waterhouse 1933B2000
                           |--T. ilia Waterhouse 1932B2000
                           |--T. ina Waterhouse 1932B2000
                           `--T. papyria (Boisduval 1832)B2000
                                |--T. p. papyriaB2000
                                `--T. p. agraulia (Hewitson 1868)B2000
Hesperiinae incertae sedis:
  Pelopidas Walker 1870B2000
    |--P. agna (Moore 1866)B12
    |    |--P. a. agnaB2000
    |    `--P. a. dingo Evans 1949B2000
    |--P. lyelli (Rothschild 1915)B12
    `--P. mathiasVHK02
         |--P. m. mathiasF92
         `--P. m. oberthueriF92
  Notocrypta de Niceville 1889B2000
    `--N. waigensis (Plötz 1882)B2000
         |--N. w. waigensisB2000
         `--N. proserpina (Butler 1883)B2000
  Parnara Moore 1881B2000
    |--P. amalia (Semper 1879)B2000
    |--P. bada (Moore 1878) [=P. naso bada]B2000
    |    |--P. b. badaB2000
    |    `--P. b. sida (Waterhouse 1934)B2000
    |--P. delectaB1900
    |--P. guttataNI11
    |--P. mathiasP01
    `--P. ogasawaraensis Matsumura 1906I92
  Borbo Evans 1949B2000
    |--B. cinnara (Wallace 1866)B2000
    `--B. impar (Mabille 1883)B2000
         |--B. i. imparB2000
         |--B. i. lavinia (Waterhouse 1932)B2000
         `--B. i. tetragraphus (Mabille 1891)B2000
  Pseudoborbo Lee 1966B2000
    `--P. bevani (Moore 1878) [=Borbo bevani]B2000
  Ancyloxypha numitorS72
  Atalopedes campestrisS72
    |--A. arogosS72
    |    |--A. a. arogosS72
    |    `--A. a. iowaS72
    |--A. conspicuaS72
    |--A. dionC37
    |    |--A. d. dionC37
    |    `--A. d. alabamaeC37
    |--A. gala Godman & Salvin 1900FS54
    `--A. pontiacS72
    |--B. inconspicuaB1900
    |--B. lugensB01
    `--B. mathiasS72
    |--C. palaemonI92
    |    |--C. p. palaemonI92
    |    `--C. p. satakei (Matsumura 1919)I92
    `--C. silviusP01
    |--H. fasciolataE66
    `--H. phylaeus (Drury 1770)FS54
    |--L. edataFS54
    `--L. eufalaS72
    |--O. agricolaS72
    |--O. asahinai Shirôzu 1964I92
    |--O. snowiS72
    |--O. subhyalinaI92
    `--O. yumaS72
    |--P. corydon (Fabricius 1775)FS54
    `--P. philetesS72
         |--P. p. philetesS72
         `--P. p. doloresS72
  Piruna pirusS72
    |--P. hobomokS72
    |--P. massasoitS72
    `--P. melane (Edwards 1869)FS54
    |--P. athenion (Hübnewr 1816)FS54
    `--P. themistoclesS72
  Pseudocopaeodes eunusS72
  Yvretta rhesusS72
Nomen nudum: Hesperia cinnara Moore in Wallace & Moore 1866WM66

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B2000] Braby, M. F. 2000. Butterflies of Australia: their identification, biology and distribution vol. 1. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood (Victoria).

[B12] Braby, M. F. 2012. The butterflies of El Questro Wilderness Park, with remarks on the taxonomy of the Kimberley fauna, Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 27 (2): 161–175.

[B1900] Butler, A. G. 1900. On a second collection of butterflies obtained by Mr. Edward M. de Jersey in Nyasaland. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 5: 59–63.

[B01] Butler, A. G. 1901a. An account of a collection of butterflies made by the Rev. K. St. Aubyn Rogers between Mombasa and the forests of Taveta. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 7: 22–35.

[C37] Clark, A. H. 1937. The butterflies of Virginia. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 39 (5): 116.

[E66] Evans, H. E. 1966. The Comparative Ethology and Evolution of the Sand Wasps. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[F92] Fan Z. 1992. Key to the Common Flies of China 2nd ed. Science Press: Beijing.

[FS54] Franz, E., & H. Schröder. 1954. Tagfalter (Lep. Rhopalocera) aus El Salvador. Senckenbergiana Biologica 35: 75–87.

[I92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[J03] Jong, R. de. 2003. Are there butterflies with Gondwanan ancestry in the Australian region? Invertebrate Systematics 17: 143–156.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[M89] Mabille, P. 1889. Un genre nouveau de lépidoptères. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France, 6e série 9: ix–x.

[NI11] Norhafiza, A. F., & A. B. Idris. 2011. A catalogue of Ichneumoninae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) from Malaysia. Serangga 16 (1): 29–50.

[P01] Pável, J. 1901. Lepkék [Lepidopteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 171–177. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[R13] Reuter, O. M. 1913. Lebensgewohnheiten und Instinkte der Insekten bis zum Erwachen der sozialen Instinkte. R. Friedländer & Sohn: Berlin.

[R26] Risso, A. 1826. Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l’Europe méridionale et particulièrement de celles des environs de Nice et des Alpes maritimes vol. 5. F.-G. Levrault: Paris.

[S72] Shields, O. 1972. Flower visitation records for butterflies (Lepidoptera). Pan-Pacific Entomologist 48 (3): 189–203.

[VHK02] Verma, M., M. Hayat & S. I. Kazmi. 2002. The species of Elasmus from India (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Eulophidae). Oriental Insects 36: 245–306.

[WM66] Wallace, A. R., & F. Moore. 1866. List of lepidopterous insects collected at Takow, Formosa, by Mr. R. Swinhoe. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 355–365.

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