Wrinkled rock borer Hiatella arctica, copyright FWC Fish and Wildlife Research Institute.

Belongs within: Bivalvia.
Contains: Hippuritacea, Neomiodontidae, Gastrochaenidae, Montacutidae, Lasaeidae, Sportellidae, Thyasira, Lucinidae, Solenoidea, Tellinoidea, Neoheterodontei, Cardiidae, Panopea.

The Heterodonta are one of the major living clades of bivalves, with their earliest representatives appearing in the Ordovician. In the past, the living members of the clade were divided between the orders Veneroida and Myoida (the latter including burrowing forms with thin shells and reduced dentition) but molecular analyses have indicated that the myoidans are polyphyletic (Giribet & Wheeler 2002). Previous authors have also included the clades Carditoida and/or Anomalodesmata within their concept of Heterodonta but recent molecular analyses support their exclusion (Plazzi et al. 2011). The Hippuritoida are a fossil group known from the Silurian to the Cretaceous, primitively with a hinge of a few thick and amorphous teeth, that have been recognised as a third order of heterodonts.

Modern representatives of the Heterodonta include the Hiatellidae, a family of small, quadrate to trapezoidal, burrowing or nestling clams. They have more or less gaping valves and only one or two weak teeth in the hinge. The Galeommatoidea are burrowing clams with the shell commonly thin and more or less covered externally by the mantle. A number of species of this group live in association with other invertebrates, either attached to their body surface or within their burrows. The Thyasiridae are a group of thin-shelled clams with a distinct dorsal anterior depression near the hinge. Cyrenoida is a genus of thin-shelled, orbicular clams found in tropical brackish waters.

<==Heterodonta (see below for synonymy)PC11
    |--Thyasiridae [Thyasiroidea]TW07
    |    |--ThyasiraP61
    |    |--LeptaxinusBRW98
    |    |--TauraxinusBRW98
    |    |--Storthodon Giebel 1856TW07
    |    |    `--S. liscaviensis Giebel 1856SB93
    |    |--Maorithyas Fleming 1950P61
    |    |    |--*M. marama Fleming 1950P61
    |    |    `--M. flemingi Powell 1955P61
    |    |--Genaxinus Iredale 1930P61
    |    |    |--*G. albigena [=Thyasira albigena]P61
    |    |    |--G. cookianus Fleming 1950P61
    |    |    `--G. otagoensis (Suter 1913)P61 [=Thyasira otagoensisD56]
    |    `--AxinopsidaCram96
    |         |--A. bongrainiN65
    |         |--A. magellanicaN65
    |         |--A. serricataBRW98
    |         `--A. subquadrataGAS03
       |    |--LucinidaeTW07
       |    `--Cyrenoida de Joannis 1835PB27 (see below for synonymy)
       |         |--*C. dupontia de Joannis 1835 (see below for synonymy)PB27
       |         |--C. rhodopyga v. Martens 1891 [=Cyrenoidea rhodopyga]PB27
       |         |--C. rosea (d’Ailly 1896) [=Cyrenella rosea]PB27
       |         |    |--C. r. roseaPB27
       |         |    `--C. r. brevidentata Pilsbry & Bequaert 1927PB27
       |         `--C. senegalensis (Deshayes 1854) [=Cyrenella senegalensis]PB27
               `--Hiatellidae [Hiatelloidea, Saxicavidae]PC11
                    |--Cyrtodaria siliquaJB12, N79
                    |--Panomya arcticaBRW98, KBC03
                    `--Hiatella Daudin in Bosc 1801P61 [incl. SaxicavaBRW98]
                         |--*H. arctica (Linnaeus 1767)P61, GO78 (see below for synonymy)
                         |--H. antarctica (Philippi 1845)P61 [=Saxicava antarcticaF26]
                         |--H. australis (Lamarck 1818)P61 [=Saxicava australisF26; incl. H. angasiBRW98]
                         |--H. gallicana (Lamarck 1818)GO78
                         |--H. minutaG20
                         |--‘Saxicava’ norvegicaN79
                         |--‘Saxicava’ pholadis Middendorff 1851N79 (see below for synonymy)
                         |--‘Saxicava’ rugosa [incl. S. rugosa var. praecisa]U79
                         `--H. solida (Sowerby 1834)GO78
Heterodonta incertae sedis:
    |  i. s.: PlagioptychidaeSB93
    |           |--CoralliochamaJB12
    |           `--PlagioptychusSB93
    |                |--P. arnaudi Douvillé 1888SB93
    |                |--P. paradoxus Matheron 1843SB93
    |                `--P. toucasianus Matheron 1843SB93
    |         Antillocaprina [Antillocaprinidae]SB93
    |           `--A. occidentalis (Whitfield 1897)SB93
    |         Dictyoptychidae [Trechmannellinae]SB93
    |           |--Eodictyoptychus arumaensis Skelton & El-Asa’ad 1992SB93
    |           `--Dictyoptychus morgani (Douvillé 1904)SB93
    `--PachyrismaSB93 [Megalodontidae, MegalodontoideaJB12]
         `--P. grande Morris & Lycett 1853SB93
    |--Amotapus arbolensis (Woods 1922)SB93
    `--Raetomya schweinfurthi (Mayer-Eymar 1887)SB93
  Sowerbya [Sowerbyidae]SB93
    `--S. triangularis (Phillips 1848)SB93
  Quenstedtia [Quenstedtiidae]SB93
    `--Q. laevigata (Phillips 1848)SB93
  Unicardiopsis [Unicardiopsidae]SB93
    |--U. aceste (d’Orbigny 1850)SB93
    `--U. incertum (Phillips 1848)SB93
    |--Scittila nasuta Casey 1961SB93
    |--Euloxa latisulcata (Conrad 1840)SB93
    `--Cabralista schmitzi (Böhm 1899)SB93
    |--Pollex obesus Stephenson 1953SB93
    `--Neritra polliciformis Stephenson 1954SB93
  Pleurodesma [Pleurodesmatidae]SB93
    |--P. mayeri Hörnes 1859SB93
    `--P. moulinsi (Potiez & Michaud 1844)SB93
    |--Tancredia truncataS89
    `--Sakawanella triadica Ichikawa 1950SB93
  Galeommatoidea [Erycinoidea, Leptonacea, Leptonoidea]TW07
    |  i. s.: Planktomya hensoniCrag96
         |--Parabornia squillina Boss 1965MB66
         |--Mylitta deshayesiiM54
         |--Erycina (Erycina) pellucida Lamarck 1805SB93
         `--Semierycina (Erycinopsis) semipecten (Cossmann 1887)SB93
    |--F. clavata [=Teredo (Fistulana) clavata]G20
    `--F. mumia (Spengler 1783) [=Gastrochaena mumia]H09
  Byssomya pholadisG20
    |--C. elegansH09
    |--C. fimbriata (Linnaeus 1758) [=Venus fimbriata]H09
    |--C. lamellosaR41
    `--C. soverbii Reeve 1841R41
  Capsa rugosaG20
  Isocardia cor [=Chama (Isocardia) cor]G20
    |--T. burnetiC64
    `--T. schrammiG79
  Lucinopsis Forbes 1848G79
    |--L. tenuisG79
    `--L. undata [=Venus undata]J64
  Propecuna subovataBRW98
    |--Mactromyopsis (Mactromyella) inflata (Thévenin 1909)SB93
         |--B. despectaBRW98
         `--B. percostataBRW98

Cyrenoida de Joannis 1835PB27 [=Cyrenella Deshayes 1836PB27, Cyrenodonta Adams & Adams 1858PB27, Cyrenoidea (l. c.)PB27, Cyrenoides (l. c.)PB27; Cyrenoidacea, CyrenoididaeG88]

*Cyrenoida dupontia de Joannis 1835 [=*Cyrenella (*Cyrenoida) dupontiae d’Ailly 1896, Cyrenoides dupontii Woodward 1854]PB27

Heterodonta [Arcticacea, Arcticoidea, Cardioidea, Corbiculacea, Corbiculoidea, Euheterodonta, Gastropempta, Lithophaga, Lucinina, Lucinoidea, Myacea, Myoida, Nymphacea, Teleodesmacea]PC11

*Hiatella arctica (Linnaeus 1767)P61, GO78 [=Mya arcticaP61, Saxicava arcticaF26; incl. M. byssiferaJ64, S. groenlandicaJ64, S. arctica var. uddevallensisJ64]

‘Saxicava’ pholadis Middendorff 1851N79 [incl. S. clavaC64, S. distortaC64, S. gastrochaenoideaC64, S. legumenC64]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BRW98] Beesley, P. L., G. J. B. Ross & A. Wells (eds) 1998. Fauna of Australia vol. 5. Mollusca: The Southern Synthesis. Part A. Australian Biological Resources Study: Canberra.

[C64] Carpenter, P. P. 1864. Supplementary report on the present state of our knowledge with regard to the Mollusca of the west coast of North America. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 33: 517–686.

[Crag96] Cragg, S. M. 1996. The phylogenetic significance of some anatomical features of bivalve veliger larvae. In: Taylor, J. D. (ed.) Origin and Evolutionary Radiation of the Mollusca pp. 371–380. Oxford University Press: Oxford.

[Cram96] Crame, J. A. 1996. Evolution of high-latitude molluscan faunas. In: Taylor, J. D. (ed.) Origin and Evolutionary Radiation of the Mollusca pp. 119–131. Oxford University Press: Oxford.

[D56] Dell, R. K. 1956. The archibenthal Mollusca of New Zealand. Dominion Museum Bulletin 18: 1–235.

[F26] Finlay, H. J. 1926. A further commentary on New Zealand molluscan systematics. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 320–485.

[GO78] Gallardo S., C., & C. Osorio R. 1978. Hiatella solida (Sowerby, 1834) (Mollusca: Hiatellidae) on Concholepas concholepas (Bruguière, 1789) and other substrates. Veliger 20 (3): 274–278.

[GW02] Giribet, G., & W. Wheeler. 2002. On bivalve phylogeny: a high-level analysis of the Bivalvia (Mollusca) based on combined morphology and DNA sequence data. Invertebrate Biology 121 (4): 271–324.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[G88] Gray, J. 1988. Evolution of the freshwater ecosystem: the fossil record. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 62: 1–214.

[GAS03] Gulbin, V. V., I. S. Arzamastsev & V. M. Shulkin. 2003. Ecological monitoring of the water area of Port Vostochnyi (Wrangel Bay) in the Sea of Japan (1995–2002). Russian Journal of Marine Biology 29 (5): 284–295.

[G79] Guppy, R. J. L. 1879. First sketch of a marine invertebrate fauna of the Gulf of Paria and its neighbourhood. Part I.—Mollusca. Journal of Conchology 2: 151–172.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[J64] Jeffreys, J. G. 1864. The Upper Tertiary fossils at Uddevalla, in Sweden. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 33 (Notices and Abstracts): 73–79.

[JB12] Johnson, M. E., & B. G. Baarli. 2012. Development of intertidal biotas through Phanerozoic time. In: Talent, J. A. (ed.) Earth and Life: Global biodiversity, extinction intervals and biogeographic perturbations through time pp. 63–128. Springer.

[KBC03] Kashin, I. A., E. V. Bagaveeva & S. F. Chaplygina. 2003. Fouling communities of hydrotechnical constructions in Nakhodka Bay (Sea of Japan). Russian Journal of Marine Biology 29: 267–283.

[M54] Macpherson, J. H. 1954. Molluscs (sea shells and snails). In: Willis, J. M. (ed.) The Archipelago of the Recherche pp. 55–63. Australian Geographical Society: Melbourne.

[MB66] Moore, D. R., & K. J. Boss. 1966. Records for Parabornia squillina. Nautilus 80 (1): 34–35.

[N65] Nicol, D. 1965. A new Thyasira (Pelecypoda) from the Ross Sea, Antarctica. Nautilus 78 (3): 79–80.

[N79] Norman, A. M. 1879. The Mollusca of the fiords near Bergen, Norway. Journal of Conchology 2: 8–77.

[PB27] Pilsbry, H. A., & J. Bequaert. 1927. The aquatic mollusks of the Belgian Congo, with a geographical and ecological account of Congo malacology. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 53 (2): 69–602, pls 10–77.

[PC11] Plazzi, F., A. Ceregato, M. Taviani & M. Passamonti. 2011. A molecular phylogeny of bivalve mollusks: ancient radiations and divergences as revealed by mitochondrial genes. PLoS One 6 (11): e27147.

[P61] Powell, A. W. B. 1961. Shells of New Zealand: An illustrated handbook 4th ed. Whitcombe and Tombs Limited: Christchurch.

[P98] Prothero, D. R. 1998. Bringing Fossils to Life: An introduction to paleobiology. WCB McGraw-Hill: Boston.

[R41] Reeve, L. 1841. Description of a new species of Corbis, a genus of acephalous mollusks of the family Nymphacea. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 9: 85–86.

[SB93] Skelton, P. W., & M. J. Benton. 1993. Mollusca: Rostroconchia, Scaphopoda and Bivalvia. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 237–263. Chapman & Hall: London.

[S89] Stephens, W. J. 1889. An attempt to synchronise the Australian, South African, and Indian coal measures. Part I.—The Australasian and New Zealand formations. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 4 (2): 331–356.

[S98] Stilwell, J. D. 1998. Late Cretaceous Mollusca from the Chatham Islands, New Zealand. Alcheringa 22 (1): 29–85.

[TW07] Taylor, J. D., S. T. Williams, E. A. Glover & P. Dyal. 2007. A molecular phylogeny of heterodont bivalves (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Heterodonta): new analyses of 18S and 28S rRNA genes. Zoologica Scripta 36 (6): 587–606.

[U79] d’Urban, W. S. M. 1879. The Mollusca of Barents Sea, between Spitzbergen and Novaya Zemblia. Journal of Conchology 2: 88–94.

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