Heteronyx

 Heteronyx sp., from PaDIL.

Belongs within: Melolonthinae.

Heteronyx is a remarkably diverse genus of chafers found in Australia, species of which have toothed tarsal claws. Over 230 species are currently recognised, with many more possibly remaining undescribed. Twenty-eight species have been described from New Guinea and Brazil but at least the Brazilian species have probably been misplaced in this genus (Britton 2000).

Characters (from Britton 2000): Small to moderate size (length 3.5–17 mm); tarsal claws with a tooth beneath, sometimes bifid; clypeus not extended forwards and upwards as a reflexed lamina above the labrum; labrum often reflexed upwards and visible before the clypeus as viewed from above; without a vertical median carina in an anterior emargination; maxillae with 5 or 6 inwardly directed, sharp, black teeth on the lacinia; disc of pronotum and elytra usually with a uniform clothing of short, semierect or recumbent setae; antennae 8 or 9-segmented, including an asymmetric club of three very short lamellae; anterior tibiae almost always with 2 teeth on the outer edge in addition to the apical process and never with a minute, acute tooth very close to the base; tarsi without a pulvillus or setose pad between the claws; abdomen almost always with a lateral, longitudinal ridge on each side; elytra usually without longitudinal striae, rarely with more than slightly impressed sutural striae; body colour testaceous, castaneous, piceous or black.

<==Heteronyx Guérin-Méneville 1831 (see below for synonymy)B00
|--*H. australis Guérin-Méneville 1831 (see below for synonymy)B00
|--H. acutifrons Blackburn 1889B00
|--H. additus Blackburn 1909 [incl. H. amoenus Blackburn 1910]B00
|--H. advena Blackburn 1890B00
|--H. aequaliceps Blackburn 1890B00
|--H. aequalis Blackburn 1889 [incl. H. debilicollis Blackburn 1909, H. taeniensis Blackburn 1909]B00
|--H. affinis Blackburn 1909B00
|--H. agrestis Burmeister 1855B00
|--H. agricola Blackburn 1910B00
|--H. alienus Blackburn 1892B00
|--H. alpicola Blackburn 1892B00
|--H. ambiguus Blackburn 1910B00
|--H. amboinensis Moser 1920B00
|--H. apertus Blackburn 1910B00
|--H. aphodioides Blanchard 1850 [incl. H. incultus Blackburn 1889, H. potens Blackburn 1889]B00
|--H. apicispinosa Heller 1914B00
|--H. arcanus Blackburn 1892 [incl. H. umbrinus Blackburn 1909]B00
|--H. aridus Blackburn 1889B00
|--H. aruanus Moser 1920B00
|--H. asperatus Moser 1920B00
|--H. aspericollis Blackburn 1889B00
|--H. asperifrons Blackburn 1909B00
|--H. augustae Blackburn 1889 [incl. H. anceps Blackburn 1889, H. decorus Blackburn 1892]B00
|--H. badius Macleay 1888 [incl. H. darwini Blackburn 1889, H. macleayi Blackburn 1910]B00
|--H. beltanae Blackburn 1889B00
|--H. bidentatus Blackburn 1889B00
|--H. blandus Blackburn 1909B00
|--H. bolivianus Moser 1919B00
|--H. borealis Blackburn 1889B00
|--H. bovilli Blackburn 1890B00
|--H. brevior Fairmaire 1883B00
|--H. calidus Blackburn 1910B00
|--H. callabonnae Blackburn 1909B00
|--H. capillatus Macleay 1888B00
|--H. castanescens Moser 1924B00
|--H. castaneus Blanchard 1846 [incl. H. obscurus Blanchard 1846 non Le Guillou 1844]B00
|--H. cervina (Boisduval 1835)B00 (see below for synonymy)
|--H. chlorotica (Gyllenhal 1817) [=Melolontha chlorotica, Scitala chlorotica; incl. H. fissiceps Blackburn 1890]B00
|--H. cliens Blackburn 1910B00
|--H. collaris Blackburn 1890B00
|--H. comans Blackburn 1909B00
|--H. concolor Macleay 1871 (see below for synonymy)B00
|--H. confertus Blackburn 1910B00
|--H. constans Blackburn 1889 [incl. H. yilgarnensis Blackburn 1890]B00
|--H. corpulentus Macleay 1888B00
|--H. corumbanus Moser 1921B00
|--H. costulatus Blackburn 1910B00
|--H. crassus Blackburn 1889B00
|--H. cribriceps Blackburn 1892B00
|--H. crinitus Blackburn 1910B00
|--H. cunnamullae Blackburn 1910B00
|--H. cuyabanus Moser 1919B00
|--H. cygneus Blackburn 1889B00
|--H. darlingensis Blackburn 1889B00
|--H. declaratus Blackburn 1909B00
|--H. dentipes Blackburn 1889B00
|--H. dimidiata (Erichson 1842)B00 (see below for synonymy)
|--H. disjectus Blackburn 1910 [incl. H. nudus Blackburn 1910]B00
|--H. diversiceps Blackburn 1890B00
|--H. doctus Blackburn 1890B00
|--H. doddi Blackburn 1908B00
|--H. electus Blackburn 1889B00
|--H. elongatus Blanchard 1850 [incl. H. monticola Blackburn 1909]B00
|--H. elytrurus Blackburn 1909B00
|--H. excisus Blackburn 1890B00
|--H. ‘excisa’ Heller 1912 non H. excisus Blackburn 1890B00
|--H. exectus Blackburn 1909B00
|--H. fervidus Blackburn 1892B00
|--H. fimbriatus Moser 1924 [=H. ciliatus Moser 1920 (preoc.)]B00
|--H. flavus Blackburn 1890 [incl. H. angustus Blackburn 1890]B00
|--H. fortis Blackburn 1889B00
|--H. fraserensis Blackburn 1892B00
|--H. frenchi Blackburn 1909B00
|--H. froggatti Macleay 1888B00
|--H. frontalis Blackburn 1889 [incl. H. nitidus Blackburn 1890]B00
|--H. fulvohirtus Blackburn 1889 (see below for synonymy)B00
|--H. fumata (Erichson 1842)B00 (see below for synonymy)
|--H. furvus Blackburn 1892B00
|--H. glabrata (Erichson 1842) [=Silopa glabrata, H. glabratus]B00
|--H. grandis Blackburn 1900B00
|--H. granulatus Blackburn 1910B00
|--H. granulifer Blackburn 1889B00
|--H. granum Burmeister 1855B00
|--H. helmsi Blackburn 1892 [incl. H. waterhousei Blackburn 1910]B00
|--H. heynei Moser 1919B00
|--H. hirsutosetosus Moser 1920B00
|--H. hirsutus Blackburn 1910B00
|--H. hirtuosus Blackburn 1890B00
|--H. hispidulus Blackburn 1908B00
|--H. horridus Blackburn 1889B00
|--H. humilis Blackburn 1910B00
|--H. imitator Blackburn 1909B00
|--H. impar Blackburn 1910 [incl. H. convexicollis Blackburn 1910]B00
|--H. incognitus Blackburn 1892 [incl. H. punctipes Blackburn 1909]B00
|--H. incola Blackburn 1889B00
|--H. infirmus Blackburn 1910B00
|--H. infuscatus Macleay 1871 (see below for synonymy)B00
|--H. inornatus (Blackburn 1900)B00 [=*Anacheirotus inornatusHW92]
|--H. insignis Blackburn 1889B00
|--H. insularis Fairmaire 1883B00
|--H. interioris Blackburn 1909B00
|--H. intrusus Blackburn 1910B00
|--H. iridiventris Blackburn 1890B00
|--H. irrasus Lea 1926B00
|--H. jejunus Blackburn 1889 [incl. H. longulus Blackburn 1890, H. lubricus Blackburn 1890]B00
|--H. johannis Blackburn 1912B00
|--H. labratus Moser 1926B00
|--H. laeviceps Blackburn 1889B00
|--H. laminatus Blackburn 1890B00
|--H. lateritius Blackburn 1889 [incl. H. validus Blackburn 1910]B00
|--H. laticeps Burmeister 1855 [incl. H. coatesi Blackburn 1909, H. holosericeus Macleay 1871]B00
|--H. lilliputanus Blackburn 1890B00
|--H. lindi Blackburn 1889 [incl. H. submetallicus Blackburn 1889]B00
|--H. lividus Blackburn 1889B00
|--H. lobatus Blackburn 1889 [incl. H. viator Blackburn 1890]B00
|--H. luteolus Blackburn 1909B00
|--H. maculatus Blackburn 1889B00
|--H. magnus Moser 1924B00
|--H. major Blackburn 1910 [incl. H. moestus Blackburn 1910]B00
|--H. maluensis Brenske 1889B00
|--H. marcidus Blackburn 1892B00
|--H. marginatus Blackburn 1890B00
|--H. merus Blackburn 1892 [incl. H. oodnadattae Blackburn 1909]B00
|--H. metropolitanus Blackburn 1909B00
|--H. mimus Blackburn 1890B00
|--H. minimus Lea 1926B00
|--H. minutus Blackburn 1910B00
|--H. moluccanus Moser 1920B00
|--H. montanus Blackburn 1890 [incl. H. miser Blackburn 1910, H. ordinarius Blackburn 1910]B00
|--H. mulwalensis Blackburn 1889B00
|--H. mundus Blackburn 1909B00
|--H. nasutus Blackburn 1889 [incl. H. tridens Blackburn 1892]B00
|--H. neglectus Blackburn 1910B00
|--H. nigella (Erichson 1842) (see below for synonymy)B00
|--H. nigrescens Blackburn 1909 [incl. H. nubilus Blackburn 1909]B00
|--H. nigricans Burmeister 1855 [incl. H. comes Blackburn 1910]B00
|--H. nigrita Blanchard 1850 [=H. nigritus; incl. H. nigrinus Blackburn 1890, H. vacuus Blackburn 1890]B00
|--H. nigritulus Moser 1926B00
|--H. normalis Blackburn 1889B00
|--H. novitius Blackburn 1910B00
|--H. obesa Burmeister 1855 [=H. obesus; incl. H. occidentalis Blackburn 1889]B00
|--H. oblongus Blanchard 1850 (see below for synonymy)B00
|--H. ohausiana Saylor 1938B00
|--H. orbus Blackburn 1909B00
|--H. ovatus Blanchard 1850 [incl. H. inconspicuus Blackburn 1910]B00
|--H. pallidulus Macleay 1871B00
|--H. papuanus Moser 1920B00
|--H. parvulus Macleay 1888B00
|--H. pauxillus Blackburn 1910B00
|--H. pellucida Burmeister 1855 [incl. H. distortus Lea 1926, H. scutatus Macleay 1888]B00
|--H. peregrinus Blackburn 1890 [incl. H. macilentus Blackburn 1910]B00
|--H. perkinsi Blackburn 1909B00
|--H. piceoniger Macleay 1888B00
|--H. piceus Blanchard 1850 [incl. H. ponderosus Blackburn 1909, H. spissus Blackburn 1909]B00
|--H. pilosellus Blanchard 1850 [incl. H. copiosus Blackburn 1909]B00
|--H. pilosus Blanchard 1846B00
|--H. placidus Blackburn 1910B00
|--H. planata Burmeister 1855 (n. d.)B00
|--H. planiceps Blackburn 1910B00
|--H. posticalis Blackburn 1890 [incl. H. approximans Blackburn 1910]B00
|--H. praecox (Erichson 1842)B00 (see below for synonymy)
|--H. proditor Blackburn 1892B00
|--H. proprius Blackburn 1910 [incl. H. austrinus Blackburn 1910]B00
|--H. prosper Blackburn 1909B00
|--H. protervus Blackburn 1892 [incl. H. tropicus Blackburn 1909]B00
|--H. proxima Burmeister 1855 [=H. proximus]B00
|--H. pubescens (Erichson 1842)B00 (see below for synonymy)
|--H. pumilus Sharp 1877 [incl. H. brevicornis Blackburn 1889]B00
|--H. punctatissimus Montrouzier 1857B00
|--H. puncticollis Blackburn 1890B00
|--H. punctipennis Blackburn 1889 [incl. H. cribripennis Blackburn 1912]B00
|--H. pustulosus Blackburn 1890B00
|--H. pygidialis Blackburn 1889B00
|--H. pygmaeus Blackburn 1910B00
|--H. quadraticollis Blackburn 1890B00
|--H. queenslandicus Blackburn 1909B00
|--H. randalli Blackburn 1890 [incl. H. femoralis Blackburn 1909, H. severus Blackburn 1892]B00
|--H. rectangulus Blackburn 1910B00
|--H. relictus Blackburn 1909 [incl. H. mildurensis Blackburn 1910]B00
|--H. rhinastus Blackburn 1890B00
|--H. rhinoceros Blackburn 1892B00
|--H. rothei Blackburn 1890B00
|--H. rotundiceps Blanchard 1850 [incl. H. debilis Blackburn 1889]B00
|--H. rubescens Blanchard 1850B00
|--H. ruficollis Macleay 1871B00
|--H. rofumarginatus Blanchard 1850B00
|--H. rufopiceus Macleay 1888 [incl. H. breviceps Blackburn 1889]B00
|--H. rugosipennis Macleay 1871 [incl. H. dux Blackburn 1909, H. incomptus Blackburn 1909]B00
|--H. rusticus Blackburn 1890B00
|--H. salebrosus Blackburn 1909B00
|--H. satelles Blackburn 1889B00
|--H. scalptus Blackburn 1890 (see below for synonymy)B00
|--H. schenklingi Moser 1919B00
|--H. sequens Blackburn 1894 [incl. H. ignobilis Blackburn 1910, H. sollicitus Blackburn 1910]B00
|--H. setifer Blackburn 1890B00
|--H. sexualis Blackburn 1909B00
|--H. siccus Blackburn 1892B00
|--H. simius Blackburn 1890B00
|--H. simplicicollis Blackburn 1909B00
|--H. simulator Blackburn 1889 [incl. H. intermedius Blackburn 1909, H. thoracicus Blackburn 1909]B00
|--H. sloanei Blackburn 1889B00
|--H. solidus Blackburn 1889B00
|--H. spadicea Burmeister 1855 [=H. spadiceus]B00
|--H. spretus Blackburn 1889B00
|--H. squalidus Blackburn 1908B00
|--H. striatus Blackburn 1909 [incl. H. seriatus Blackburn 1909]B00
|--H. suavis Blackburn 1909B00
|--H. subferruginea Burmeister 1855B00 [=H. subferrugineusHW92]
|--H. subfuscus Macleay 1888 (see below for synonymy)B00
|--H. subglaber Macleay 1888B00
|--H. substriatus Macleay 1871B00
|--H. sulcifrons Blackburn 1909B00
|--H. sydneyanus Blackburn 1890B00
|--H. tarsalis Blackburn 1909 [incl. H. griffithi Blackburn 1909]B00
|--H. tasmanicus Blackburn 1909 [incl. H. quaesitus Blackburn 1909]B00
|--H. tenebrosus Blackburn 1909B00
|--H. tepperi Blackburn 1889 [incl. H. subfortis Blackburn 1908]B00
|--H. terrena Blackburn 1892 (see below for synonymy)B00
|--H. tindalei Britton 1992 [=H. insularis Lea 1926 non Fairmaire 1883]B00
|--H. torvus Blackburn 1889B00
|--H. transversicollis Macleay 1888B00
|--H. tridentatus Lea 1924B00
|--H. tristis Blackburn 1889B00
|--H. umbilicatus Fauvel 1914B00
|--H. unicolor Blanchard 1850 [incl. H. auricomus Blackburn 1889, H. campestris Blackburn 1910]B00
|--H. unicus Blackburn 1900B00
|--H. variegatus Blackburn 1889B00
|--H. vicinus Blackburn 1910B00
|--H. victoris Blackburn 1889 [incl. H. socius Blackburn 1909]B00
|--H. viduus Blackburn 1910 [incl. H. glaber Lea 1926, H. modestus Blackburn 1910]B00
`--H. zalotus Blackburn 1910B00

Heteronyx Guérin-Méneville 1831 [incl. Anacheirotus Blackburn 1900, Cotidia Boisduval 1835, Hostilina Blanchard 1850, Silopa Erichson 1842]B00

*Heteronyx australis Guérin-Méneville 1831 [incl. H. castaneus Macleay 1871 non Blanchard 1846, H. conjunctus Blackburn 1910, H. erichsoni Blackburn 1910, H. farinensis Blackburn 1910, H. hackeri Blackburn 1910, H. olliffi Blackburn 1910, H. pseudocastaneus Houston & Weir 1992, H. pubescens Macleay 1871 non Silopa pubescens Erichson 1842, H. vagans Blackburn 1890]B00

Heteronyx cervina (Boisduval 1835)B00 [=Sericesthis cervinaB00, Caulobius cervinusB57, Heteronyx cervinusB00; incl. Silopa tempestiva Erichson 1842B00, H. tempestivusB00]

Heteronyx concolor Macleay 1871 [incl. H. cowelli Blackburn 1894, H. oscillator Blackburn 1890, H. pauper Blackburn 1910, H. puer Blackburn 1910, H. sparsus Blackburn 1889, H. suturalis Blackburn 1895]B00

Heteronyx dimidiata (Erichson 1842)B00 [=Silopa dimidiataB00; incl. *Cotidia australis Boisduval 1835 non Heteronyx australis Guérin-Méneville 1831HW92, B00, Heteronyx fallax Blackburn 1890B00, H. fraternus Blackburn 1890B00, H. jubatus Blackburn 1890B00, H. striatipennis Blanchard 1850B00]

Heteronyx fulvohirtus Blackburn 1889 [incl. H. dispar Blackburn 1908, H. litigiosus Blackburn 1908, H. rudis Blackburn 1908]B00

Heteronyx fumata (Erichson 1842)B00 [=Silopa fumataB00; incl. S. hepatica Erichson 1842B00, Heteronyx hepaticusB90, H. laticollis Blanchard 1850B00, H. rapax Blackburn 1890B00, H. rubriceps Blanchard 1850B00]

Heteronyx infuscatus Macleay 1871 [incl. H. fictus Blackburn 1910, H. lucidus Blackburn 1910, H. rotundifrons Blackburn 1889]B00

Heteronyx nigella (Erichson 1842) [=Silopa nigella; incl. H. holomelaena Blanchard 1850, H. holomelaenus, H. maurulus Blackburn 1910, H. obscurus Le Guillou 1844, H. pinguis Blackburn 1890]B00

Heteronyx oblongus Blanchard 1850 [incl. H. consanguineus Blackburn 1892, H. dubius Blackburn 1899, H. piger Blackburn 1889, H. raucinasus Blackburn 1889]B00

Heteronyx praecox (Erichson 1842)B00 [=Silopa praecoxB00, *Hostilina praecoxHW92; incl. H. carpentariaeM86, H. testaceus Blackburn 1889B00]

Heteronyx pubescens (Erichson 1842)B00 [=Silopa pubescensB00, Caulobius pubescensB57; incl. Heteronyx carteri Blackburn 1909B00, H. deceptor Blackburn 1890B00, H. gracilipes Blackburn 1889B00]

Heteronyx scalptus Blackburn 1890 [=H. sculptus (l. c.); incl. H. difficilis Blackburn 1912, H. xanthotrichus Blackburn 1910]B00

Heteronyx subfuscus Macleay 1888 [incl. H. sordidus Blackburn 1910, H. subcylindricus Blackburn 1910, H. subvittatus Macleay 1888]B00

Heteronyx terrena Blackburn 1892 [=H. terrenus (l. c.); incl. H. elongatulus Dalla Torre 1912, H. elongatus Blackburn 1909 non Blanchard 1850, H. eremita Blackburn 1909, H. hothamensis Blackburn 1909, H. ingratus Blackburn 1909]B00

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[B90] Blackburn, T. 1890. Revision of the genus Heteronyx, with descriptions of new species. Part V. Appendix. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 4 (4): 1217–1246.

[B57] Britton, E. B. 1957. A Revision of the Australian Chafers (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Melolonthinae) vol. 1. British Museum (Natural History): London.

[B00] Britton, E. B. 2000. A review of Heteronyx Guérin-Méneville (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Melolonthinae). Invertebrate Taxonomy 14: 465–589.

[HW92] Houston, W. W. K., & T. A. Weir. 1992. Melolonthinae. In: Houston, W. W. K. (ed.) Zoological Catalogue of Australia vol. 9. Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea pp. 174–358. AGPS Press: Canberra.

[M86] Masters, G. 1886. Catalogue of the described Coleoptera of Australia. Part III. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (1): 21–126.

 

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