Heteropteroidea

 Reconstruction of Karabasia evansi, from Grimaldi & Engel (2005).

Belongs within: Hemiptera.
Contains: Heteroptera.

The clade Heteropteroidea unites the true bugs of the Heteroptera with their living sister taxon, the Southern Hemisphere Peloridiidae. The peloridiids are flattened, broad-bodied bugs with widely-separated eyes on short peduncles, paranotal lobes on the pronotum, and forewings with net-like veins. They are found amongst moss and leaf litter in South America and Australasia (Grimaldi & Engel 2005). Peloridiidae are the only living members of the clade Coleorrhyncha, members of which are united by features including two-segmented fore and mid tarsi, and fore wings with enlarged posterior apical cells (Shcherbakov & Popov 2002). The Heteroptera may be derived from the Scytinopteroidea, planthopper-like bugs known from the late Permian to the early Cretaceous (Shcherbakov & Popov 2002).

Synapomorphies (from Grimaldi & Engel 2005): Antennae clavate; gula present on underside of head; thoracic scent glands present in adults; wings overlapping, lying flat against abdomen, with specialised wing-coupling devices; abdomen flattened, with spiracles on ventral surface.

<==Heteropteroidea
    |--+--HeteropteraGE05
    |  `--ScytinopteroideaSP02
    |       |--SerpentivenaRJ93 [Serpenivenidae, SerpentivenidaeSP02]
    |       |    `--S. tigrina Shcherbakov 1984RJ93
    |       |--IpsviciaK-P91 [IpsviciidaeSP02]
    |       |    `--I. jonesiK-P91
    |       |--StenoviciaF71 [StenoviciidaeSP02]
    |       |    `--S. angustata Evans 1943F71
    |       |--ParaknightiaF71 [ParaknightiidaeSP02]
    |       |    `--P. magnifica Evans 1943F71
    |       `--Scytinopteridae [Seytinopteridae]SP02
    |            |--Apheloscyta xiangdongensis Lin 1986RJ93
    |            |--Scytinoptera sibiricaRJ93
    |            `--Sunoscytinopteris lushangfenensis Hong 1985RJ93
    `--Coleorrhyncha [Peloridiina, Peloridiomorpha, Peloridioptera]GE05
         |--Mesoscytina [Cicadocorinae, Progonocimicidae, Progonocimicoidea]SP02
         `--PeloridioideaSP02
              |--Hoploridium [Hoploridiidae, Hoploridiinae]GE05
              |    `--H. dollingiSP02
              |--Karabasiidae [Karabasiinae]SP02
              |    |--Karabasia evansiGE05
              |    `--Tegulicicada plana Lin 1986RJ93
              `--PeloridiidaeGE05
                   |--PeloridoraGE05
                   |--Howeria kingsmilliK-P91
                   |--Peloridium hammoniorumCGW91
                   |--Hackeriella tayloriCGW91, WEE74
                   |--OiophysellaCGW91
                   |--Hackeria veitchiWEE70
                   |--Oiphysa fuscataRD77
                   |--Hemiowoodwardia Evans 1972WEE74
                   |    `--*H. wilsoni [=Hemiodoecus wilsoni]WEE74
                   |--HemiodoecusWEE70
                   |    |--H. fidelisS38
                   |    `--H. leaiWEE70
                   `--HemiodoecellusCGW91
                        |--H. donnaeWEE70
                        `--H. fidelisCGW91

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[CGW91] Carver, M., G. F. Gross & T. E. Woodward. 1991. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, cicadas, aphids, scale insects etc.) In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1 pp. 429–509. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1–167.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[K-P91] Kukalová-Peck, J. 1991. Fossil history and the evolution of hexapod structures. In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers vol. 1 pp. 141–179. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms’ General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

[RJ93] Ross, A. J., & E. A. Jarzembowski. 1993. Arthropoda (Hexapoda; Insecta). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 363–426. Chapman & Hall: London.

[SP02] Shcherbakov, D. E., & Yu. A. Popov. 2002. Superorder Cimicidea Laicharting, 1781: Order Hemiptera Linné, 1758. The bugs, cicadas, plantlice, scale insects, etc. [=Cimicida Laicharting, 1781, =Homoptera Leach, 1815 + Heteroptera Latreille, 1810). In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 143–157. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[S38] Snodgrass, R. E. 1938. The loral plates and the hypopharynx of Hemiptera. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 40 (8): 228–236.

[WEE74] Woodward, T. E., V. F. Eastop & J. W. Evans. 1974. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, etc.) In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers. Supplement 1974 pp. 52–57. Melbourne University Press.

[WEE70] Woodward, T. E., J. W. Evans & V. F. Eastop. 1970. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, etc.) In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 387–457. Melbourne University Press.

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