Heteroscleromorpha

Stylissa massa, from here.

Belongs within: Demospongiae.
Contains: Tetracladina, Anthaspidellidae, Rhizomorina, Dicranocladina, Megamorina, Petrosina, Chalinidae, Niphatidae, Callyspongiidae, Tetractinellida, Axinellida, Bubarida, Biemnida, Agelasida, Polymastiidae, Suberitidae, Halichondriidae, Tethyida, Poecilosclerida, Clionaidae, Sphaerocladina, Spongillidae.

The Heteroscleromorpha are a major clade of demosponges that possess a skeleton composed of siliceous spicules, often in conjuction with smaller microscleres. Notable subgroups of heteroscleromorphs include the Spongillida, the only group of sponges to radiate in fresh water. The Haplosclerida are a marine group characterised by an isodictyal anisotropic or isotropic choanosomal skeleton and spicules including diactinal megascleres (Morrow & Cárdenas 2015).

<==Heteroscleromorpha (see below for synonymy)MC15
    |--Haplosclerida [Haploscleromorpha]MG-H11
    |    |  i. s.: Euzkadiella [Euskadiellidae]RB93
    |    |           `--E. erenoensis Reitner 1987RB93
    |    |         Newellia [Newellidae]RB93
    |    |           `--N. mira (Newell 1935)RB93
    |    |--PetrosinaMC15
    |    `--HaplosclerinaMC15
    |         |--ChalinidaeMC15
    |         |--NiphatidaeMC15
    |         `--CallyspongiidaeMC15
    `--+--+--+--TetractinellidaMC15
       |  |  `--+--AxinellidaMC15
       |  |     |--BubaridaMC15
       |  |     `--BiemnidaMC15
       |  `--+--AgelasidaMC15
       |     `--+--PolymastiidaeMC15
       |        `--+--Suberitida [Suberitina]MC15
       |           |    |  i. s.: Terpios fugax Duchassaing & Michelotti 1864MC15, BJ06
       |           |    |         HomaxinellaMC15
       |           |    |--SuberitidaeAS12
       |           |    |--HalichondriidaeMC15
       |           |    `--StylocordylaMG-H11 [StylocordylidaeMC15]
       |           |         `--S. borealis (Lovén 1868)SU21
       |           `--+--+--TethyidaMC15
       |              |  `--Trachycladidae [Trachycladida]MC15
       |              |       |--Trachycladus laevispirulifer Carter 1879MG-H11
       |              |       `--RhaphidhistiaMC15
       |              `--+--+--+--PoeciloscleridaMC15
       |                 |  |  `--Desmacellidae [Desmacellida]MC15
       |                 |  |       |--DesmacellaMG-H11
       |                 |  |       |--DragmatellaMC15
       |                 |  |       `--MicrotylostyliferMC15
       |                 |  `--MerliidaMC15
       |                 |       |--Merlia Kirkpatrick 1908SU21 [MerliidaeMC15]
       |                 |       |    |--M. morlandi (Hinde & Holmes 1892)SU21
       |                 |       |    `--M. normani Kirkpatrick 1908SU21
       |                 |       `--HamacanthidaeMC15
       |                 |            |--Hamacantha Gray 1867SU21
       |                 |            `--PozziellaMC15
       |                 `--Clionaida [Spirastrellida]MC15
       |                      |--ClionaidaeMG-H11
       |                      |--AcanthochaetetidaeMC15
       |                      |    |--Acanthochaetetes suenesi Reitner & Engeser 1983RB93
       |                      |    `--WillardiaMC15
       |                      |--SpirastrellidaeMC15
       |                      |    |--DiplastrellaMG-H11
       |                      |    `--SpirastrellaMC15
       |                      |         |--S. cylindrica Kieschnick 1896K96
       |                      |         `--S. dilatata Kieschnick 1896K96
       |                      `--PlacospongiidaeMC15
       |                           |--OnotoaMC15
       |                           |--PlacospherastraMC15
       |                           `--PlacospongiaFV09
       |                                |--P. melobesioides Gray 1867FV09
       |                                `--P. mixta Thiele 1900BJ06
       `--+--Scopalinidae [Scopalinida]MC15
          |    |--SvenzeaMC15
          |    |--ScopalinaMC15
          |    |    |--S. lophyropoda Schmidt 1862SU21
          |    |    `--S. toxotesK96
          |    `--StylissaMC15
          |         |--*S. flabelliformis (Hentschel 1912)MC15, FS14
          |         |--S. carteri (Dendy 1889)FV09
          |         |--S. conulosa (Dendy 1922)FS14
          |         `--S. massa (Carter 1887)FV09
          `--+--SphaerocladinaMC15
             `--Spongillida [Spongillina]MC15
                  |  i. s.: AcanthotylotraMC15
                  |         BalliviaspongiaMC15
                  |         MakediaMC15
                  |         OhridospongillaMC15
                  |--SpongillidaeMC15
                  |--MetschnikoviaB50 [MetschnikowiidaeMC15]
                  |--PalaeospongillidaeMC15
                  |    |--Palaeospongilla chubutensis Ott & Volkheimer 1972RB93
                  |    |--EospongillaMC15
                  |    `--LutetiospongillaMC15
                  |--LubomirskiidaeMC15
                  |    |--Baikalospongia dzhegetajensisMC15, G88
                  |    |--Lubomirskia baicalensisPP15
                  |    |--RezinkoviaMC15
                  |    |--SwartschewskiaMC15
                  |    `--Baikalolepis Makushok 1927B50
                  |--MalawispongiidaeMC15
                  |    |--CortispongillaMC15
                  |    |--MalawispongiaMC15
                  |    |--OchridaspongiaMC15
                  |    |--PachydictyumMC15
                  |    `--SpinospongillaMC15
                  |--MetaniidaeMC15
                  |    |--AcalleMC15
                  |    |--CorvomeyeniaMC15
                  |    |--DruliaMC15
                  |    |--HoussayellaMC15
                  |    `--MetaniaMC15
                  `--PotamolepidaeMC15
                       |--EchinospongillaMC15
                       |--OncoscleraMC15
                       |--PotamolepisMC15
                       |--PotamophloiosMC15
                       |--SterrastrolepisMC15
                       `--UruguayaMC15
Heteroscleromorpha incertae sedis:
  ClavulidaeB30
  MonocrepidaeB30
  TetracladinaRB93
  OrchocladinaRB93
    |--AnthaspidellidaeRB04
    |--ChiastoclonellidaeRB93
    |    |--Syltispongia ingemariae Van Kempen 1990RB93
    |    |--Chiastoclonella headi Rauff 1894RB93
    |    `--Actinocoelia maeandrina Finks 1960RB93
    `--AnthracosyconidaeRB93
         |--Anthracosycon regulare (King 1943)RB93
         `--Collatipora Finks 1960RB93, RB04
              `--C. discreta Finks 1960RB93
  ‘Monotrypella’ timorica Vinassa 1915SG-M98
  ArabesculaMC15
  PlakidiumMC15
  PoritellaMC15
  PetromicaMC15
  Hindiidae [Tricranocladina]RB93
    |--Hindia sphaeroidalis Duncan 1879RB93
    |--Belubulaspongia Rigby & Webby 1988RB93
    |--Palmatohindia Rigby & Webby 1988RB93
    |--Arborohindia Rigby & Webby 1988RB93
    |--Mamelohindina Rigby & Webby 1988RB93
    |--Fenestrospongia Rigby & Webby 1988RB93
    |--Scheiia tuberosa Tschneryschew & Stepanov 1916RB93
    `--Cotylahindia panacaCR04
  RhizomorinaRB93
  DicranocladinaRB93
  Cylindrophymatidae [Didymmorina]RB93
    |--Malinowskiella actinosum Hurcewicz 1985RB93
    |--Melonella ovata Sollas 1883RB93
    `--Cylindrophyma milleporata (Goldfuss 1833)RB93
  MegamorinaRB93
  Cassianothalamia [Cassianothalamiidae]RB93
    `--C. zardinii Reitner 1987RB93
  Rhizochalina [Phloeodictyinae]K96
    `--R. crassispicula Kieschnick 1896K96
  Raphidophlus [Ectyoninae]K96
    `--R. ramosus Kieschnick 1896K96

Heteroscleromorpha [Clavulina, Democlavia, Hadromerida, Halichondrida, Lithistida, Monactinellidae, Monaxonellida, Monaxonida, Tetractinomorpha, Tetraxonida]MC15

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[AS12] Adl, S. M., A. G. B. Simpson, C. E. Lane, J. Lukeš, D. Bass, S. S. Bowser, M. W. Brown, F. Burki, M. Dunthorn, V. Hampl, A. Heiss, M. Hoppenrath, E. Lara, E. Le Gall, D. H. Lynn, H. McManus, E. A. D. Mitchell, S. E. Mozley-Stanridge, L. W. Parfrey, J. Pawlowski, S. Rueckert, L. Shadwick, C. L. Schoch, A. Smirnov & F. W. Spiegel. 2012. The revised classification of eukaryotes. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 59 (5): 429–493.

[BJ06] Barnich, R., & D. Janussen. 2006. Die Typen und Typoide des Naturmuseums Senckenberg, Nr. 86. Type catalogue of the Porifera in the collections of the Senckenberg Museum in Frankfurt am Main, Germany. Senckenbergiana Biologica 86 (2): 127–144.

[B30] Bidder, G. P. 1930. On the classification of sponges. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of London 141: 44–47.

[B50] Brooks, J. L. 1950. Speciation in ancient lakes. Quarterly Review of Biology 25: 30–60.

[CR04] Carrera, M. G., & J. K. Rigby. 2004. Sponges. In: Webby, B. D., F. Paris, M. L. Droser & I. G. Percival (eds) The Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event pp. 102–111. Columbia University Press.

[FS14] Fromont, J., & A. Sampey. 2014. Kimberley marine biota. Historical data: sponges (Porifera). Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 84: 69–100.

[FV09] Fromont, J., & M. A. Vanderklift. 2009. Porifera (sponges) of Mermaid, Scott and Seringapatam Reefs, north Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 77: 89–103.

[G88] Gray, J. 1988. Evolution of the freshwater ecosystem: the fossil record. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 62: 1–214.

[K96] Kieschnick, O. 1896. Silicispongiae von Ternate nach den Sammlungen von Herrn Prof. Dr. W. Kükenthal. Zoologischer Anzeiger 19: 526–534.

[MG-H11] McEnnulty, F. R., K. L. Gowlett-Holmes, A. Williams, F. Althaus, J. Fromont, G. C. B. Poore, T. D. O’Hara, L. Marsh, P. Kott, S. Slack-Smith, P. Alderslade & M. V. Kitahara. 2011. The deepwater megabenthic invertebrates on the western continental margin of Australia (100–1100 m depths): composition, distribution and novelty. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 80: 1–191.

[MC15] Morrow, C., & P. Cárdenas. 2015. Proposal for a revised classification of the Demospongiae (Porifera). Frontiers in Zoology 12: 7.

[PP15] Pisani, D., W. Pett, M. Dohrmann, R. Feuda, O. Rota-Stabelli, H. Philippe, N. Lartillot & G. Wörheide. 2015. Genomic data do not support comb jellies as the sister group to all other animals. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 112 (50): 15402–15407.

[RB93] Rigby, J. K., G. E. Budd, R. A. Wood & F. Debrenne. 1993. Porifera. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 71–99. Chapman & Hall: London.

[SU21] Santín, A., M.-J. Uriz, J. Cristobo, J. R. Xavier & P. Ríos. 2021. Unique spicules may confound species differentiation: taxonomy and biogeography of Melonanchora Carter, 1874 and two new related genera (Myxillidae: Poecilosclerida) from the Okhotsk Sea. PeerJ 9: e12515.

[SG-M98] Schäfer, P., & J. A. Grant-Mackie. 1998. Revised systematics and palaeobiogeography of some Late Triassic colonial invertebrates from the Pacific region. Alcheringa 22 (2): 87–122.

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