Hexacorallia

Calyx of Anthemiphyllia dentata, from here.

Belongs within: Anthozoa.
Contains: Spirularia, Actiniaria, Corallimorpharia, Scleractinia, Antipatharia, Zoanthidea.

The Hexacorallia are a major group of cnidarians including the stony corals, sea anemones and related taxa. Most species have hexamerous symmetry, though some are octomerous or decamerous. The group is more reliably characterised by the presence of spirocysts, cnidae with a single-walled capsule and a tubule composed of tiny entangling subthreads (Daly et al. 2007). Subgroups of the Hexacorallia include the Ceriantharia, which are solitary, elongate polyps that live burrowed into sediment and contained within a flexible tube constructed from discharged cnidae and mucus (Daly et al. 2007).

Hexacorallia [Ceriantipatharia]
    |--CerianthariaDB07
    |    |--IsarachnanthusRB14 [ArachnanthidaeDB07, Penicillaria]
    |    `--SpirulariaDB07
    `--+--ActiniariaRB14
       `--+--+--CorallimorphariaRB14
          |  `--ScleractiniaRB14
          `--+--AntipathariaRB14
             `--+--ZoanthideaRB14
                `--Relicanthus Rodríguez & Daly in Rodríguez, Barbeitos et al. 2014 [Relicanthidae]RB14
                     `--*R. daphneae [=Boloceroides daphneae]RB14
Hexacorallia incertae sedis:
  AulosmiliaSR02
  Hughaea Lamouroux 1821RL03
    `--H. caribaeorum Duchassaing 1850RL03
  Maeandrina filogranaH04
  LophoserisH04
    |--L. divaricataH04
    `--L. frondiferaH04
  Tridacophyllia lactucaH04
  Lithophyllia laceraH04
  AstraeaH04
    |--A. expansaH04
    `--A. magnificaH04
  Pterogyra laxaH04
  NumidiaphyllumNS93 [NumidiaphyllidaeG02]
    `--N. gillianum Flügel 1976NS93
  KilbuchophylliaNS93 [Kilbuchophyllida, KilbuchophyllidaeG02]
    `--K. discoidea Scrutton & Clarkson 1991NS93

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[DB07] Daly, M., M. R. Brugler, P. Cartwright, A. G. Collins, M. N. Dawson, D. G. Fautin, S. C. France, C. S. McFadden, D. M. Opresko, E. Rodriguez, S. L. Romano & J. L. Stake. 2007. The phylum Cnidaria: a review of phylogenetic patterns and diversity 300 years after Linnaeus. Zootaxa 1668: 127–182.

[G02] Gudo, M. 2002. Soft body reconstructions of Palaeozoic corals: implications for the system of Anthozoa (Coelenterata). Lethaia 35: 328–344.

[H04] Haeckel, E. 1899–1904. Kunstformen der Natur. Bibliographisches Institut: Leipzig und Wien.

[NS93] Nudds, J. R., & J. J. Sepkoski Jr. 1993. Coelenterata. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 101–124. Chapman & Hall: London.

[RB14] Rodríguez, E., M. S. Barbeitos, M. R. Brugler, L. M. Crowley, A. Grajales, L. Gusmão, V. Häussermann, A. Reft & M. Daly. 2014. Hidden among sea anemones: the first comprehensive phylogenetic reconstruction of the order Actiniaria (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Hexacorallia) reveals a novel group of hexacorals. PLoS One 9 (5): e96998.

[RL03] Ryland, J. S., & J. E. Lancaster. 2003. Revision of methods for separating species of Protopalythoa (Hexacorallia: Zoanthidea) in the tropical West Pacific. Invertebrate Systematics 17: 407–428.

[SR02] Stolarski, J., & A. Russo. 2002. Microstructural diversity of the stylophyllid (Scleractinia) skeleton. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 47 (4): 651–666.

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