Hippoboscoidea

Tsetse fly Glossina morsitans, copyright Alan R. Walker.

Belongs within: Schizophora.
Contains: Streblidae.

The Hippoboscoidea are haematophagous flies that feed on birds and mammals. Members of the clade have mouthparts are modified into a rigid proboscis armed with prestomal teeth. Larvae are nourished by secretions of “milk” glands within a uterus-like structure in the female abdomen and are not laid until shortly before pupation (Grimaldi & Engel 2005). The Afrotropical tsetse flies of the genus Glossina are the least modified members of the clade, retaining a typical fly habitus.

The Hippoboscidae, louse flies, are flattened flies whose wings may be fully developed and used for flight or reduced and non-functional. In the keds of the genus Melophagus, the wings are reduced to small tubercles on the side of the thorax and the halteres are absent (Wood 2010). Keds form part of the subfamily Lipopteninae, mostly parasitic on artiodactyls, which are characterised by fairly dense, almost entirely spiniform setae on the ventral surface of the thorax (Maa & Peterson 1987).

<==HippoboscoideaKP10
    |--Glossina [Glossinidae, Glossinoidea]KP10
    |    |  i. s.: G. fuscaA71
    |    |         G. fuscipleurisA71
    |    |         G. longipalpisA71
    |    |         G. longipennisA71
    |    |         G. medicorumA71
    |    |         G. oligocenaGE05
    |    |         G. osborniGE05
    |    |         G. tabaniformisA71
    |    |         G. tachinoidesA71
    |    |--G. brevipalpisKP10
    |    `--+--+--G. fuscipesKP10
    |       |  `--G. palpalisKP10
    |       `--+--+--G. austeniKP10
    |          |  `--G. pallidipesKP10
    |          `--+--G. morsitansKP10
    |             |    |--G. m. morsitansA71
    |             |    `--G. m. submorsitansA71
    |             `--G. swynnertoniKP10
    `--Hippoboscidae [Coriaceae, Eproboscidea, Olfersiini]KP10
         |  i. s.: Stenepteryx hirundinisA71
         |         Ornithoica [Ornithoicinae]W10
         |           `--O. vicinaW10
         |         Allobosca [Alloboscinae]W10
         |           `--A. crassipesW10
         |         Stenopteryx hirundinisR26
         |         OxypterumR26
         |           |--O. kyrbianumR26
         |           `--O. pallidumR26
         |--Ornithomyinae [Ornithomyini]MP87
         |    |  i. s.: AustrolfersiaCM91
         |    |         Myophthiria [=Myiophthiria]MP87
         |    |           `--M. fimbriataW10
         |    |         Stilbometopa impressaMP87, W10
         |    |         OlfersiaMP87
         |    |           |--O. bisulcataW10
         |    |           |--O. fumipennisW10
         |    |           `--O. spiniferaW10
         |    |         IcostaMP87
         |    |           |--I. albipennisW10
         |    |           |--I. americanaW10
         |    |           |--I. ardeaeMP87
         |    |           `--I. hirsutaMP87
         |    |         Microlynchia pusillaMP87, W10
         |    |--Ornithoctona erythrocephalaKP10, W10
         |    `--+--CrataerinaKP10
         |       |    |--C. hirundinisWT11
         |       |    |--C. pallidaKP10
         |       |    `--C. seguyiW10
         |       `--Ornithomya Latreille 1802KP10, L02 [=OrnithomyiaMP87]
         |            |  i. s.: O. rottensisMP87
         |            |--O. bilobaKP10
         |            `--+--+--O. fringillinaKP10
         |               |  `--O. hirundiniKP10
         |               `--+--*O. avicularia (Linnaeus 1758)L02, KP10, L58 [=Hippobosca aviculariaL02]
         |                  `--+--O. anchineuraKP10
         |                     `--O. chloropusKP10 [incl. O. lagopodisA71]
         `--+--+--PseudolynchiaKP10
            |  |    |--P. brunneaW10
            |  |    `--P. canariensisW10
            |  `--Lipopteninae [Melophaginae]MP87
            |       |--Neolipoptena ferrisiMP87, W10
            |       `--LipoptenaKP10
            |            |--+--L. depressaKP10
            |            |  |    |--L. d. depressaMP87
            |            |  |    `--L. d. pacificaMP87
            |            |  `--L. mazamaeKP10
            |            `--+--L. cerviKP10
            |               `--Melophagus Latreille 1802KP10, L02
            |                    |--*M. ovinus (Linnaeus 1758)L02, L58 [=Hippobosca ovinaL02]
            |                    `--M. rupicaprinusA71
            `--+--+--StreblidaeKP10
               |  `--Ortholfersia [Ortholfersiinae]KP10
               |       |--O. macleayiCM91
               |       `--O. minutaKP10
               `--Hippobosca Linnaeus 1758KP10, L58 [Hippoboscinae]
                    |--H. camelinaA71
                    |--H. capensisA71
                    |--H. equina Linnaeus 1758L58
                    |--H. fulvaA71
                    |--H. hirsutaA71
                    |--H. hirundinis Linnaeus 1758L58
                    |--H. longipennisMP87
                    |--H. martinagliaA71
                    |--H. rufipes Olfers 1816R01 [incl. H. maculataR01, H. variegataA71, H. wahlenbergianaR01]
                    |--H. sitiens Boisduval 1835B35
                    `--H. struthiornisA71

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[B35] Boisduval, J. B. 1835. Voyage de Découvertes de l’Astrolabe. Exécuté par ordre du Roi, pendant les années 1826–1827–1828–1829, sous le commandement de M. J. Dumont d’Urville. Faune entomologique de l’océan Pacifique, avec l’illustration des insectes nouveaux recueillis pendant le voyage vol. 2. Coléoptères et autres ordres. J. Tastu: Paris.

[CM91] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1991. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 717–786. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[KP10] Kutty, S. N., T. Pape, B. M. Wiegmann & R. Meier. 2010. Molecular phylogeny of the Calyptratae (Diptera: Cyclorrhapha) with an emphasis on the superfamily Oestroidea and the position of Mystacinobiidae and McAlpine’s fly. Systematic Entomology 35: 614–635.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[MP87] Maa, T. C., & B. V. Peterson. 1987. Hippoboscidae. In: McAlpine, J. F. (ed.) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1271–1281. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[R01] Ricardo, G. 1901. Notes on Diptera from South Africa (concluded). Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 7: 89–110.

[R26] Risso, A. 1826. Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l’Europe méridionale et particulièrement de celles des environs de Nice et des Alpes maritimes vol. 5. F.-G. Levrault: Paris.

[WT11] Wiegmann, B. M., M. D. Trautwein, I. S. Winkler, N. B. Barr, J.-W. Kim, C. Lambkin, M. A. Bertone, B. K. Cassel, K. M. Bayless, A. M. Heimberg, B. M. Wheeler, K. J. Peterson, T. Pape, B. J. Sinclair, J. H. Skevington, V. Blagoderov, J. Caravas, S. N. Kutty, U. Schmidt-Ott, G. E. Kampmeier, F. C. Thompson, D. A. Grimaldi, A. T. Beckenbach, G. W. Courtney, M. Friedrich, R. Meier & D. K. Yeates. 2011. Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 108 (14): 5690–5695.

[W10] Wood, D. M. 2010. Hippoboscidae (louse flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1241–1248. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

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