Skull of Hexaprotodon sivalensis, from Falconer (1868).

Belongs within: Cetancodontamorpha.

The Hippopotamidae are heavy-bodied, semi-aquatic ungulates represented in the modern fauna by two African species, the hippopotamus Hippopotamus amphibius and pygmy hippopotamus Choeropsis liberiensis.

Hippopotamidae [Hippopotaminae]
| i. s.: Trilobophorus Gèze 1985BB03
| `--*T. afarensis Gèze 1985BB03
|--+--Phanourios Boekschoten & Sondaar 1972FS15, AC98
| | `--*P. minor (Desmarest 1822) [incl. P. minutus Cuvier 1824]AC98
| `--Hippopotamus Linnaeus 1758BLB05, BB03 [incl. Prechoeropsis Deraniyagala 1949C78]
| | i. s.: H. crusafontiC78
| | H. madagascarensisAC98
| | H. pantanelliC78
| | H. siculusC78
| | H. terrestris Linnaeus 1758L58
| |--+--H. aethiopicusC78
| | |--H. lemerleiC78
| | `--H. minorC78
| `--+--H. amphibius Linnaeus 1758C78, BB03 [incl. H. makapanensis Kitching 1951WC56]
| |--H. gorgopsC78
| |--H. kaisensisC78
| `--+--H. antiquusC78 [=H. amphibius antiquusME05]
| |--H. creutzburgi Boekschoten & Sondaar 1966C78, AC98
| `--H. melitensisC78
`--+--+--Archaeopotamus harvardiBLB05
| `--+--Saotherium mingozBLB05
| `--Choeropsis Leidy 1853BLB05, C78
| `--C. liberiensis Morton 1844BLB05, BB03 [=Hexaprotodon liberiensisC78]
`--Hexaprotodon Falconer & Cautley 1836BLB05, BB03
| i. s.: H. aethiopicus (Coryndon & Coppens 1975)BB03
| H. coryndoni Gèze 1985BB03
| H. crusafonti (Aguirre 1963)BB03
| H. iravaticus (Falconer & Cautley 1847)BB03
| H. lothagamensis Weston 2000BB03
| H. mingoz Boisserie, Brunet et al. 2003BB03
| H. namadicusK99
| H. sahabiensis Gaziry 1987BB03
|--*H. sivalensis Falconer & Cautley 1836C78, BB03
|--H. harvardi Coryndon 1977C78, BB03
`--+--H. karumensis Coryndon 1977C78, BB03
|--H. protamphibius (Arambourg 1944)C78, BB03 (see below for synonymy)
| |--H. p. protamphibiusBB03
| |--‘Hippopotamus’ p. andrewsi Arambourg 1947C78
| `--H. p. turkanensis Gèze 1985BB03
`--+--H. hipponensis (Gaudry 1876)C78, BB03 [=Hippopotamus hipponensisC78]
|--H. imagunculus (Hopwood 1926)C78, BB03 (see below for synonymy)
`--H. primaevus [=Hippopotamus primaevus]C78

Hexaprotodon imagunculus (Hopwood 1926)C78, BB03 [=Hippopotamus imagunculusC78; incl. Hi. (Choeropsis) archechoeropsis Erdbrink & Krommenhoek 1975BB03]

Hexaprotodon protamphibius (Arambourg 1944)C78, BB03 [=Hippopotamus protamphibiusC78; incl. He. shungurensis Gèze 1985BB03]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[AC98] Alcover, J. A., X. Campillo, M. Macias & A. Sans. 1998. Mammal species of the world: additional data on insular mammals. American Museum Novitates 3248: 1–29.

[BB03] Boisserie, J.-R., M. Brunet, L. Andossa & P. Vignaud. 2003. Hippopotamids from the Djurab Pliocene faunas, Chad, central Africa. Journal of African Earth Sciences 36: 15–27.

[BLB05] Boisserie, J.-R., F. Lihoreau & M. Brunet. 2005. The position of Hippopotamidae within Cetartiodactyla. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 102 (5): 1537–1541.

[C78] Coryndon, S. C. 1978. Hippopotamidae. In: Maglio, V. J., & H. B. S. Cooke (eds) Evolution of African Mammals pp. 483–495. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[FS15] Faurby, S., & J.-C. Svenning. 2015. A species-level phylogeny of all extant and late Quaternary extinct mammals using a novel heuristic-hierarchical Bayesian approach. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 14–26.

[K99] Kennedy, K. A. R. 1999. Paleoanthropology of South Asia. Evolutionary Anthropology 8 (5): 165–185.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[ME05] Moullé, P.-E., A. Echassoux, F. Lacombat, E. Desclaux & S. Bailon. 2005. L’environnement animal des premiers habitants de l’Europe méditerranéenne: les grands mammifères contemporains de l’homme du Vallonnet, données taxonomiques et biostratigraphiques pour la deuxième moitie du Pléistocène inférieur. BAR International Series 1364: 105–113.

[WC56] Wells, L. H., & H. B. S. Cooke. 1956. Fossil Bovidae from the Limeworks Quarry, Makapansgat, Potgietersrus. Palaeontologia Africana 4: 1–55.

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