Hirudinea

Piscicola geometra, copyright KoiQuestion.

Belongs within: Clitellata.
Contains: Arhynchobdellida.

The Hirudinea, leeches, are parasitic and predatory worms in which the posterior end of the body is modified into a sucker for locomotion.

Synapomorphies (from Ax 1999): Body divided into prostomium and 30 segments, posterior four segments forming sucker, stronger annulation through more annuli per segment. Nervous system with 31 pairs of ganglia; supraesophageal ganglion (brain) with two ganglia; subesophageal ganglion with four ganglia;  ventral nerve cord with 21 free ganglia; posterior ganglion mass from the four ganglia of the sucker segments. Ganglion structure with six packets of neurons: two packets lie behind one another laterally at each side, between these ventrally lie the remaining packets. Two layers of diagonal muscles between circular and longitudinal muscles of body wall musculature, myofibrils of both layers crossing each other at right angles. Strongly developed parenchymatous connective tissue. Coelom modified by constriction by the connective tissue and loss of mesenteries between the coelomic sacs of a segment. Spermatheca absent. Sperm transfer through spermatophores placed on surface of partner. Unpaired female genital opening.

<==Hirudinea [Hirudinida]
    |  i. s.: HemiclepsisS86
    |           |--H. marginataS86
    |           `--H. stagnalisUB03
    |         BurejospermumEL11
    |         Philaemon pungensG08
    |--Acanthobdella [Acanthobdellida, Acanthobdellidae]A99
    |    `--A. peledinaA99
    `--Autobdella [Euhirudinea, Rhynchobdellida]A99
         |  i. s.: Branchellion torpedinisA99
         |--GlossiphoniidaeRP07
         |    |--MicrobdellaG08
         |    |--Semilageneta Goddard 1908G08
         |    |    `--*S. hilli Goddard 1908G08
         |    |--HelobdellaRP07
         |    |    |--H. robustaJ-GP07
         |    |    `--H. stagnalis Linnaeus 1758UB03
         |    |--Glossiphonia [incl. Clepsine]G08
         |    |    |--G. australiensis Goddard 1908G08
         |    |    |--G. complanata Linnaeus 1758UB03
         |    |    |--G. heteroclitaG08
         |    |    `--G. inflexa Goddard 1908G08
         |    |--HaementeriaSP11
         |    |    |--H. costataA99
         |    |    `--H. depressaHO09
         |    `--Batracobdella kasmianaBK20
         `--+--PiscicolidaeRP07
            |    |--PiscicolaRP07
            |    |    |--P. funduliC02
            |    |    |--P. geometra (Linnaeus 1758)RP07
            |    |    |--P. milneriM02
            |    |    `--P. punctataM02
            |    `--Stibarobdella macrothelaNRH12
            `--ArhynchobdellidaA99

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[A99] Ax, P. 1999. Das System der Metazoa II. Ein Lehrbuch der phylogenetischen Systematik. Gustav Fisher Verlag: Stuttgart (translated: 2000. Multicellular Animals: The phylogenetic system of the Metazoa vol. 2. Springer).

[BK20] Bolotov, I. N., A. V. Kondakov, E. S. Konopleva, I. V. Vikhrev, O. V. Aksenova, A. S. Aksenov, Y. V. Bespalaya, A. V. Borovskoy, P. P. Danilov, G. A. Dvoryankin, M. Y. Gofarov, M. B. Kabakov, O. K. Klishko, Y. S. Kolosova, A. A. Lyubas, A. P. Novoselov, D. M. Palatov, G. N. Savvinov, N. M. Solomonov, V. M. Spitsyn, S. E. Sokolova, A. A. Tomilova, E. Froufe, A. E. Bogan, M. Lopes-Lima, A. A. Makhrov & M. V. Vinarski. 2020. Integrative taxonomy, biogeography and conservation of freshwater mussels (Unionidae) in Russia. Scientific Reports 10: 3072.

[C02] Collette, B. B. 2002. Toadfishes. Order Batrachoididae. In: Collette, B. B., & G. Klein-MacPhee (eds) Bigelow and Schroeder’s Fishes of the Gulf of Maine 3rd ed. pp. 261–264. Smithsonian Institute Press: Washington.

[EL11] Erwin, D. H., M. Laflamme, S. M. Tweedt, E. A. Sperling, D. Pisani & K. J. Peterson. 2011. The Cambrian conundrum: early divergence and later ecological success in the early history of animals. Science 334: 1091–1097.

[G08] Goddard, E. J. 1908. Contribution to our knowledge of Australian Hirudinea. Part I. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 33: 320–342.

[HO09] Hejnol, A., M. Obst, A. Stamatakis, M. Ott, G. W. Rouse, G. D. Edgecombe, P. Martinez, J. Baguña, X. Bailly, U. Jondelius, M. Wiens, W. E. G. Müller, E. Seaver, W. C. Wheeler, M. Q. Martindale, G. Giribet & C. W. Dunn. 2009. Assessing the root of bilaterian animals with scalable phylogenomic methods. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B—Biological Sciences 276 (1677): 4261–4270.

[J-GP07] Jiménez-Guri, E., H. Philippe, B. Okamura & P. W. H. Holland. 2007. Buddenbrockia is a cnidarian worm. Science 317: 116–118.

[M02] Musick, J. A. 2002. Sturgeons. Family Acipenseridae. In: Collette, B. B., & G. Klein-MacPhee (eds) Bigelow and Schroeder’s Fishes of the Gulf of Maine 3rd ed. pp. 83–88. Smithsonian Institute Press: Washington.

[NRH12] Nakano, T., Z. Ramlah & T. Hikida. 2012. Phylogenetic position of gastrostomobdellid leeches (Hirudinida, Arhynchobdellida, Erpobdelliformes) and a new family for the genus Orobdella. Zoologica Scripta 41 (2): 177–185.

[RP07] Rousset, V., F. Pleijel, G. W. Rouse, C. Erséus & M. E. Siddall. 2007. A molecular phylogeny of annelids. Cladistics 23: 41–63.

[S86] Sket, B. 1986. Hirudinea. In: Botosaneanu, L. (ed.) Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) pp. 250–253. E. J. Brill/Dr W. Backhuys: Leiden.

[SP11] Struck, T. H., C. Paul, N. Hill, S. Hartmann, C. Hösel, M. Kube, B. Lieb, A. Meyer, R. Tiedemann, G. Purschke & C. Bleidorn. 2011. Phylogenomic analyses unravel annelid evolution. Nature 471: 95–98.

[UB03] Ustaoğlu, M. R., S. Balık, M. Özbek & H. M. Sarı. 2003. The freshwater leeches (Annelida: Hirudinea) of the Gediz catchment area (Izmir region). Zoology in the Middle East 29: 118–120.

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