Hirundo

 Barn swallow Hirundo rustica, photographed by Jiří Bohdal.

Belongs within: Hirundinidae.

The genus Hirundo includes the barn swallow H. rustica, welcome swallow H. neoxena, and related species. Authors have differed in the circumscription of this genus: at its broadest, it may include nearly all the hirundine swallows. Species of Hirundo as recognised here generally have blue upperparts, rufous throats and pale underparts, and build their nests from mud as open cups. A number of species that originally nested on rock faces have adapted to human development by using walls and beams of buildings as nesting sites. The barn swallow H. rustica is widespread in Eurasia, Africa and the Americas, breeding in northern parts of the range and overwintering in southern regions. The pearl-breasted swallow H. dimidiata is a southern African species with glossy blue upperparts and grey-white underparts.

<==Hirundo Linnaeus 1758CC10 [incl. Biblis Lesson 1837B94; Biblidinae]
    |--H. dimidiataBKB15
    `--+--+--H. leucosoma Swains. 1837BKB15, F43a
       |  `--+--H. cucullataJF06 [=Cecropis cucullataBKB15]
       |     `--H. megaensisBKB15
       `--+--+--H. atrocaeruleaBKB15
          |  `--H. nigrorufaBKB15
          `--+--+--H. neoxena Gould 1842BKB15, CC10 [incl. H. frontalisCH89]
             |  |    |--H. n. neoxena [=H. tahitica neoxena]CC10
             |  |    |--H. n. carteri (Mathews 1912) [=Chelidon javanica carteri]L03
             |  |    `--H. n. parsonsiM03
             |  `--H. tahiticaBKB15
             |       |--H. t. tahiticaL03
             |       |--H. t. ambiens Mayr 1934L03
             |       `--H. t. javanica Sparrman 1789 [incl. H. t. viridissima Meise 1929]L03
             `--+--H. albigularis Strickland 1849BKB15, L03 [incl. H. albigularis microptera Hartert 1904L03]
                `--+--H. smithiiBKB15
                   `--+--H. nigritaBKB15
                      `--+--*H. rustica Linnaeus 1758CC10, BKB15, L03
                         |    |--H. r. rusticaL03 (see below for synonymy)
                         |    |--H. r. erythrogasterFS55
                         |    `--H. r. gutturalisJ06
                         `--+--H. angolensisBKB15
                            `--+--H. aethiopica Blanford 1869BKB15, L03 [incl. H. aethiopica fulvipectus Amadon 1954L03]
                               `--H. lucidaBKB15
                                    |--H. l. lucidaL03
                                    `--H. l. rothschildi Neumann 1904L03
Hirundo incertae sedis:
  H. americanusJ23
  H. aprica Feduccia 1967U93
  H. borbonicaSch66
  H. capensisScl66
  H. domicolaJT12
  H. filiferaE42
  H. fossilis Giebel 1847M02
  H. fuliginosaJT12
  H. leucopygiaF43b
  H. obsoletaJT12
  H. paludicolaB93
  H. pelasgiaJ23
  H. perditaJT12
  H. purpureaJ23
  H. senegalensisJT12 [=Cecropis senegalensisL03]
    |--H. s. senegalensisL03
    `--H. s. monteiri Hartlaub 1862 [incl. H. s. hybrida van Someren 1921]L03
  H. subis Linnaeus 1758L58

Hirundo rustica rustica Linnaeus 1758L03 [incl. H. rustica afghanica Koelz 1939L03, H. rustica var. horreorum Heuglin 1874S05]

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[B94] Bock, W. J. 1994. History and nomenclature of avian family-group names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 222: 1–281.

[B93] Brooke, R. K. 1993. Annotated catalogue of the Aves type specimens in the South African Museum. Annals of the South African Museum 102 (10): 327–349.

[BKB15] Burleigh, J. G., R. T. Kimball & E. L. Braun. 2015. Building the avian tree of life using a large-scale, sparse supermatrix. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 53–63.

[CC10] Checklist Committee (OSNZ). 2010. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand, Norfolk and Macquarie Islands, and the Ross Dependency, Antarctica 4th ed. Ornithological Society of New Zealand and Te Papa Press: Wellington.

[CH89] Cox, J. D., & A. G. Hamilton. 1889. A list of the birds of the Mudgee district, with notes on their habits, etc. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 4 (2): 395–424.

[E42] Ewer, W. 1842. List of a collection of birds from India. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 10: 91–93.

[FS55] Felten, H., & J. Steinbacher. 1955. Zur Vogelfauna von El Salvador. Senckenbergiana Biologica 36 (1–2): 9–19.

[F43a] Fraser, L. 1843a. On Cricetomys gambianus and various species of birds from western Africa. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 11: 51–53.

[F43b] Fraser, L. 1843b. On the collection of birds brought to England by Mr. Bridges. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 11: 108–121.

[J23] James, E. 1823. Account of an Expedition from Pittsburgh to the Rocky Mountains, performed in the years 1819 and ’20, by order of the Hon. J. C. Calhoun, sec’y of war: under the command of Major Stephen H. Long. From the notes of Major Long, Mr. T. Say, and other gentlemen of the exploring party vol. 1. H. C. Carey & I. Lea: Philadelphia.

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444–448.

[J06] Johnstone, R. E. 2006. The birds of Gag Island, Western Papuan islands, Indonesia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 23 (2): 115–132.

[JF06] Jønsson, K. A., & J. Fjeldså. 2006. A phylogenetic supertree of oscine passerine birds. Zoologica Scripta 35: 149–186.

[L03] LeCroy, M. 2003. Type specimens of birds in the American Museum of Natural History. Part 5. Passeriformes: Alaudidae, Hirundinidae, Motacillidae, Campephagidae, Pycnonotidae, Irenidae, Laniidae, Vangidae, Bombycillidae, Dulidae, Cinclidae, Troglodytidae, and Mimidae. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 278: 1–156.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[M02] Mlíkovský, J. 2002. Cenozoic Birds of the World. Part 1: Europe. Ninox Press: Praha.

[M03] Morcombe, M. 2003. Field Guide to Australian Birds 2nd ed. Steve Parish Publishing.

[S05] Schalow, H. 1905. Die Vögel der Arktis. In: Römer, F., & F. Schaudinn (eds) Fauna Arctica. Eine Zusammenstellun der arktischen Tierformen, mit besonder Berücksichtigung des Spitzbergen-Gebietes auf Grund der Ergebnisse der Deutschen Expedition in das Nördliche Eismeer im Jahre 1898 vol. 4 pp. 79–288. Gustav Fischer: Jena.

[Sch66] Schlegel, H. 1866. Communication from, on mammals and birds collected in Madagascar. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 419–426.

[Scl66] Sclater, P. L. 1866. Report on birds collected at Windvogelberg, South Africa, by Capt. G. E. Bulger, C. M. Z. S. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 21–23.

[U93] Unwin, D. M. 1993. Aves. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 717–737. Chapman & Hall: London.

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