Hispinae

Tortoise beetles Chelymorpha cribraria, copyright Richard Crook.

Belongs within: Chrysomelidae.
Contains: Hispa, Physonota.

The Hispinae are a group of leaf beetles with an opisthognathous head and tetramerous tarsi. Members of the tribe Chalepini are narrow-bodied with a rough dorsum bearing coarse, deeply impressed punctation (Riley et al. 2002).

Characters (from Riley et al. 2002): Body narrow, parallel to broadly ovate, above nearly flat to highly convex, finely to deeply punctate; margins narrow to broadly explanate, frequently spined or serrate. Head broadly to narrowly exposed or hidden by explanate margin of pronotum, usually opisthognathous; frons and clypeus usually slanted posteriorly, sometimes clypeus horizontal; mouthparts sometimes partially hidden by anterior margin of prosternum; antenna with from three to eleven distinct antennomeres, inserted on frons between eyes, insertions narrowly separated, terminal antennomeres sometimes fused to form club. Pronotum with or without tactile setae in anterior and posterior angles. Elytral punctures generally arranged in ten striae and short subscutellar row but frequently greatly modified or absent; intervals frequently costate in narrow-bodied forms. Ventrites 1 and 2 connate. Tarsi 4-4-4, the normal penultimate tarsomere lost; bifid tarsal setae present on tarsomeres 1–3. Larvae highly variable in body form, living as leaf miners, between appressed leaves or other plant parts, or openly on foliage; exposed feeders usually with variably developed lateral scoli and faecal annex.

<==Hispinae [Hispidae]
|--Botryonopa [Botryonopini]L86
| `--B. sheppardiL86
|--HispiniLB91
| |--Hispellinus multispinosusLB91
| `--HispaB66
|--Ischyrosonychini [Asterizini, Physonotini]RC02
| |--AsterizaN13
| `--PhysonotaRC02
|--CryptonychiniL86
| |--Plesispa nipaeL86
| `--CallistolaL86
| |--C. dilutipesL86
| `--C. speciosa [=Oxycephala speciosa]L86
|--Mesomphaliini [Eugenysini, Stolaini]RC02
| |--Hilarocassis Spaeth 1913RC02
| | `--H. exclamationis (Linnaeus 1767)RC02
| |--Mesomphalia Hope 1838FS90
| | |--M. aenea Ol. 1790FS90
| | `--M. exclamationis Linné 1767FS90
| `--Chelymorpha Chevrolat 1836 [=Chelimorpha (l. c.); incl. Cyphomorpha Hope 1840]RC02
| |--C. argusG17
| |--C. cassidea (Fabricius 1776)RC02
| |--C. cribraria (Fabricius 1775)RC02 [incl. C. apiataFS90, C. multipunctataFS90]
| |--C. phytophagica Crotch 1873RC02
| `--C. polysticha Boh. 1854FS90
`--Chalepini [Octotomites, Uroplatini]RC02
|--Uroplata girardiLB91, B74
|--Sumitrosis Butte 1968RC02
|--Stenopodius Horn 1883RC02
|--Brachycoryna Guérin-Méneville 1844RC02
|--Glyphuroplata Uhmann 1940RC02
|--Platocthispa Uhmann 1940RC02
| `--P. lateritia (Smith 1886)RC02
|--Pentispa Chapuis 1875 [=Penthispa (l. c.)]RC02
| `--P. suturalisRC02
|--Chalepus Thunberg 1805 [incl. Anoplitis Kirby 1837, Parachalepus Baly 1885, Parachelepus (l. c.)]RC02
| |--C. praeustus [=Odontota praeusta]FS90
| `--C. walshii (Crotch 1873)RC02
|--Octotoma Dejean 1836RC02
| |--O. plicatula (Fabricius 1801)RC02
| `--O. scabripennisLB91
|--Odontota Chevrolat 1836RC02
| |--O. arizonica (Uhmann 1938)RC02
| `--O. dorsalis (Thunberg 1805)RC02
|--Baliosus Weise 1905 [incl. Parabaliosus Monrós & Viana 1947]RC02
| |--B. californicus (Horn 1883)RC02
| `--B. nervosus (Panzer 1794)RC02
|--Microrhopala Chevrolat 1836RC02
| |--*M. vittata (Fabricius 1798)RC02
| `--M. laetula (LeConte 1859)RC02
|--Anisostena Weise 1910RC02
| | i. s.: A. nigritaRC02
| |--A. (Apostena Staines 1993)RC02
| `--A. (Neostena Monrós & Viana 1947)RC02
`--Xenochalepus Weise 1910RC02
| i. s.: X. omorgusRC02
|--X. (Xenochalepus) [incl. Hemichalepus Uhmann 1957]RC02
| `--X. (X.) potomacus Butte 1968RC02
`--X. (Neochalepus Staines & Riley 1994)RC02

Hispinae incertae sedis:
Coelaenomenodera elaeidisB88
Eurispa howittiLB91
Aproida balyiLB91
NotasacanthaLB91
MonochirusB70
|--M. maestusB90
`--M. multispinosusB70
Lasiochila Weise 1916DK08
|--L. gestroi (Baly 1888)DK08
`--L. goryi (Guérin 1840)DK08
PromecothecaLB91
|--P. antiquaB88
|--P. cummingiiB88
|--P. opacicollisB88
|--P. papuanaB88
`--P. reicheiA71
BotanocharaN13
CalliaspisN13
CalyptocephalaN13
HybosaN13
Leptispa allardi Baly 1890B90
CallispaB90
|--C. brettinghami Baly 1869B90
|--C. delauneyi Fleutiaux 1887B90
|--C. fleutiauxi Baly 1890B90
|--C. nigricornusB90
`--C. ruficollis Fairmaire 1889F89
DownesiaB90
|--D. angustata Fleutiaux 1887B90
|--D. gestroiB90
|--D. strigicollisB90
`--D. sulcata Fleutiaux 1887B90
Estegmena chinensisB90
Platypria digitata Gestro 1888 [incl. Hispa hystrix]B90

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[B90] Baly, J.-S. 1890. Contributions a la faune Indo-Chinoise. 6e mémoire. Sagridae, Crioceridae, Chrysomelidae, Hispidae. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France, 6e série 9: 485–492.

[B66] Bates, H. W. 1866. On a collection of Coleoptera from Formosa sent home by R. Swinhoe, Esq., H. B. M. Consul, Formosa. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 339–355.

[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[B70] Britton, E. B. 1970. Coleoptera (beetles). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 495–621. Melbourne University Press.

[B74] Britton, E. B. 1974. Coleoptera (beetles). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers. Supplement 1974 pp. 62–89. Melbourne University Press.

[DK08] Dohm, P., D. Kovač, A. Freidberg & R. Bin Hashim. 2008. Biology of the Oriental bamboo-inhabiting fly Felderimyia gombakensis and observations on mating trophallaxis in Felderimyia (Insecta, Diptera, Tephritidae, Phytalmiinae, Acanthonevrini). Senckenbergiana Biologica 88 (2): 311–318.

[F89] Fairmaire, L. 1889. Coléoptères de l’intérieur de la Chine. 5e partie. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France, 6e série 9: 5–84.

[FS90] Fleutiaux, E., & A. Sallé. 1890. Liste des coléoptères de la Guadeloupe et descriptions d’espèces nouvelles. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France, 6e série 9: 351–484.

[G17] Girault, A. A. 1917. Descriptiones hymenopterorum chalcidoidicarum variorum cum observationibus. III. Privately published (reprinted in: Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 102–111).

[LB91] Lawrence, J. F., & E. B. Britton. 1991. Coleoptera (beetles). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 543–683. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[L86] Lindquist, E. E. 1986. The world genera of Tarsonemidae (Acari: Heterostigmata): a morphological, phylogenetic, and systematic revision, with a reclassification of family-group taxa in the Heterostigmata. Memoirs of the Entomological Society of Canada 118 (S136): 1–517.

[N13] Nadein, K. S. 2013. Febraina: a new subtribe of Alticini with cladistic analysis based on morphology (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae). Systematic Entomology 38 (3): 491–506.

[RC02] Riley, E. G., S. M. Clark, R. W. Flowers & A. J. Gilbert. 2002. Chrysomelidae Latreille 1802. In: Arnett, R. H., Jr, M. C. Thomas, P. E. Skelley & J. H. Frank (eds) American Beetles vol. 2. Polyphaga: Scarabaeoidea through Curculionoidea pp. 617–691. CRC Press.

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