Holectypoida

(Left to right) aboral, oral and posterior views of Globator nucleus, from Wagner & Durham (1966).

Belongs within: Irregularia.
Contains: Discoididae.

The Holectypoida are a group of irregular echinoids known from the Lower Jurassic to the present (Wagner & Durham 1966). They commonly appear superficially regular in their test shape, with the position of the periproct the most obvious deviation from overall radial symmetry.

Characters (from Wagner & Durham 1966): Test hemispherical to globular or ovoid; ambulacra petaloid or not, narrower than interambulacra throughout; apical system monobasal or with four or five genital plates; girdle with or without interradial ridges, well developed or rudimentary or lacking in adult; teeth with lateral flanges; gill slits present or not; periproct supramarginal to inframarginal.

<==Holectypoida
    |  i. s.: Echinogalerus König 1825 [incl. Caratomus Agassiz 1840, Caratomella Strand 1928, Rostrogalerus Lambert 1911]WD66
    |           |--*E. peltiformis (Wahlenberg 1818) [=Echinites peltiformis]WD66
    |           |--‘Catopygus’ avellana Dubois 1843 [=*Caratomus avellana, *Caratomella avellana]WD66
    |           |--‘Galerites’ globosus Roemer 1841SG93
    |           |--‘Caratomus’ nuperusH79
    |           |--‘Caratomus’ rostratus Desor 1842 [=*Rostrogalerus rostratus]WD66
    |           `--E. truncatusWD66
    |         Rhopostoma Cooke 1959WD66
    |           `--*R. cruciferum (Morton 1830) [=Ananchytes cruciferus]WD66
    |--HolectypinaWD66
    |    |--DiscoididaeWD66
    |    |--Anorthopygus Cotteau 1869 [incl. Pseudopileus de Loriol 1901; Anorthopygidae]WD66
    |    |    |--*A. orbicularis (Grateloup 1836) [=Nucleolites orbicularis]WD66
    |    |    |--A. paradoxus Hawkins 1935SG93
    |    |    |--A. texanus Cooke 1946SG93
    |    |    `--A. zumoffeni de Loriol 1901 [=*Pseudopileus zumoffeni]WD66
    |    `--Holectypidae [Holectypinae]WD66
    |         |--Coptodiscus Cotteau & Gauthier 1895WD66
    |         |    `--*C. nomiae Cotteau & Gauthier 1895WD66
    |         |--Coenholectypus Pomel 1883 [=Caenholectypus (l. c.)]WD66
    |         |    |--*C. macropygus (Desor 1842) [=Holectypus macropygus]WD66
    |         |    |--C. baluchistanensis (Noetling 1897)SG93
    |         |    `--C. nachtigali (Krumbeck 1906)SG93
    |         `--Holectypus Desor 1842 (see below for synonymy)WD66
    |              |--*H. depressus (Leske 1778) [=Echinites depressus, Discoidea depressa]WD66
    |              |--H. circularis Cotteau & Gauthier 1895 [=*Temnholectypus circularis]WD66
    |              |--H. conquensis de Cortazar 1875SG93
    |              |--H. hemisphaericusWD66
    |              `--H. hians Lambert 1933SD93
    `--EchinoneinaWD66
         |  i. s.: Cluniaster Jeannet 1934WD66
         |           `--*C. rhenanus Jeannet 1934WD66
         |         Mattsechinus Thiéry in Collignon & Lambert 1928WD66
         |           `--*M. collignoni Thiéry in Collignon & Lambert 1928WD66
         |         Pileus Desor 1856SG93, F66
         |           `--*P. pileus (Agassiz 1847) [=Pygaster pileus]F66
         |--Neoglobator [Neoglobatoridae]SG93
         |    |--N. akkajensis Endelman 1980SG93
         |    |--N. danicus Endelman 1980SG93
         |    |--N. houzeaui (Cotteau 1875)SG93
         |    `--N. ovalis (Smiser 1935)SG93
         |--Galerites Lamarck 1801 (see below for synonymy)WD66
         |    |--*G. vulgaris (Leske 1778)WD66 (see below for synonymy)
         |    |--G. ernsti Schultz 1985SG93
         |    |--*Adelopneustes’ lamberti Thomas & Gauthier 1889WD66
         |    |--G. roemeri (d’Orbigny 1855) [=Echinoconus roemeri, *Pironaster roemeri]WD66
         |    `--G. stadensis (Lambert 1911)SG93
         |--Conulus Leske 1778 (see below for synonymy)WD66
         |    |--*C. albogalerus Leske 1778 [=*Echinites albogalerus]WD66
         |    |--*Conulopyrina’ anomala Hawkins 1921WD66
         |    |--‘Nucleolites’ castanea Brongniart 1822 [=*Pyrina castanea]WD66
         |    |--C. chiesai Airaghi 1939SG93
         |    `--C. soubellinsis Gauthier 1876SG93
         |--EchinoneidaeWD66
         |    |--Micropetalon Agassiz & Clark 1907WD66
         |    |    `--*M. purpureum Agassiz & Clark 1907WD66
         |    |--Echinoneus Leske 1778 (see below for synonymy)WD66
         |    |    |--*E. cyclostomus Leske 1778 [=*Echinanaus cyclostomus]WD66
         |    |    |--E. abnormalis de Loriol 1883 [=*Koehleraster abnormalis]WD66
         |    |    |--‘Haimea’ delagei [=*Pseudohaimea delagei]WD66
         |    |    `--E. ovatusF91
         |    `--Amblypygus Agassiz 1840SG93, WD66 [incl. Semiclypeus Eymar 1898WD66]
         |         |--*A. dilatatus Agassiz 1840WD66
         |         |--A. (Paramblypygus) houphoueti Roman 1973SG93
         |         `--*Semiclypeus’ pretiosus Eymar 1898WD66
         `--GlobatoridaeSG93
              |--Pygopyrina Pomel 1883SG93, WD66 [incl. Conodoxus Pomel 1883WD66, Nucleopyrina Pomel 1883WD66]
              |    |--*P. icaunensis (Cotteau 1855) [=Desoria icaunensis, Desorella icaunensis]WD66
              |    `--‘Pyrina’ cylindrica Gras 1848 [=*Nucleopyrina cylindrica]WD66
              `--Globator Agassiz 1840WD66 [incl. Paleoechinoneus Grant & Hertlein 1938SG93, WD66, Pseudopyrina Lambert 1908WD66]
                   |--*G. nucleus Agassiz 1840WD66
                   |--G. dainellii Checchia-Rispoli 1932SG93
                   |--*Paleoechinoneus’ hannai Grant & Hertlein 1938WD66
                   |--G. ilarionesis (Dames 1877)SG93
                   |--G. minuta (Smiser 1935)SG93
                   |--G. obsoleta (Bittner 1880)SG93
                   |--‘Nucleolites’ ovulum [=*Pseudopyrina ovulum]WD66
                   `--‘Pyrina’ petrocoriensis Desmoulins 1837WD66

Conulus Leske 1778 [=Echinites Leske 1778; incl. Conulopyrina Hawkins 1921, Pyrina Desmoulins 1835; Conulidae, Conulusidae]WD66

Echinoneus Leske 1778 [=Echinanaus Gray 1825; incl. Koehleraster Lambert & Thiéry 1921, Pseudohaimea Pomel 1885]WD66

Galerites Lamarck 1801 [=Conulopsis Hawkins 1912, Echinoconus d’Orbigny 1853; incl. Adelopneustes Gauthier 1889, Pironaster Munier-Chalmas 1890; Galeritidae]WD66

*Galerites vulgaris (Leske 1778)WD66 [=Echinites vulgarisWD66, *Conulopsis vulgarisWD66, *Echinoconus vulgarisWD66, Echinoneus vulgarisG20]

Holectypus Desor 1842 [incl. Temnodiscus Lambert & Thiéry 1911 non Koken 1896, Temnholectypus Lambert & Thiéry 1925]WD66

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[F66] Fell, H. B. 1966. Diadematacea. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt U. Echinodermata 3 vol. 1 pp. U340–U366a. The Geological Society of America, Inc., and The University of Kansas Press.

[F91] Freess, W. B. 1991. Beiträge zur Kenntnis von Fauna und Flora des marinen Mitteloligozäns bei Leipzig. Altenburger Naturwissenschaftliche Forschungen 6: 3–74.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[H79] Haast, J. von. 1879. Geology of the Provinces of Canterbury and Westland, New Zealand. A report comprising the results of official explorations. “Times” Office: Christchurch.

[SG93] Simms, M. J., A. S. Gale, P. Gilliland, E. P. F. Rose & G. D. Sevastopulo. 1993. Echinodermata. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 491–528. Chapman & Hall: London.

[WD66] Wagner, C. D., & J. W. Durham. 1966. Holectypoids. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt U. Echinodermata 3 vol. 2 pp. U440–U450. The Geological Society of America, Inc., and The University of Kansas Press.

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