Holophasmatodea

 Reconstruction of Triassophasma, from Gorochov & Rasnitsyn (2002).

Belongs within: Polyneoptera.
Contains: Phasmatodea.

The clade Holophasmatodea includes the modern phasmids and their fossil relatives. Fossils have been assigned to this lineage going back to the Permian or Triassic, though the status of the earliest examples as stem-phasmids has been subject to debate.

Synapomorphies (from Gorochov & Rasnitsyn 2002): Body elongate, stick-like; meso- and metathoraces much longer than prothorax; fore wing with veins subparallel.

<==Holophasmatodea [Aeroplanoidea, Phasmatida, Phasmatoptera, Phasmodea]
    |  i. s.: OrephasmaBN02
    |         NecrophasmatidaeRJ93
    |--+--XiphopterumBN02 [XiphopteridaeGE05, Xiphopteroidea]
    |  |    `--X. curvatum Sharov 1968BN02
    |  `--ProchresmodoideaGR02
    |       |--Permophasma [Permophasmatidae]GR02
    |       `--ProchresmodidaeGE05
    |            |--TriassophasmaGR02
    |            `--Prochresmoda longipodaGR02
    `--+--CretophasmaRJ93 [CretophasmatidaeGE05, Cretophasmatinae]
       |    |--C. araripensis Martins-Neto 1989RJ93
       |    `--C. raggeiRJ93
       `--+--AeroplanidaeGE05
          |    |--Paraplana affinisGR02
          |    `--Aeroplana mirabilis Tillyard 1918BN02
          `--+--Chresmodella [Chresmodellinae]GE05
             |--Baissophasma pilosaGE05, GR02
             `--+--AerophasmatidaeGE05
                |    |--BlattidiumGR02
                |    `--Durnovaria parallela Whalley 1985RJ93
                `--+--+--PhasmatodeaGE05
                   |  `--ConiphasmaGE05
                   `--Susumaniidae [Hagiphasmatidae, Susumanioidea]GE05
                        |  i. s.: ElectrobaculumGR02
                        |         Cretophasmomima baissiensisGR02
                        |--SusumaniinaeGR02
                        `--Phasmomimoides [Phasmomimoidinae]GR02
                             `--P. minutusGR02

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[BN02] Béthoux, O., & A. Nel. 2002. Venation pattern and revision of Orthoptera sensu nov. and sister groups. Phylogeny of Palaeozoic and Mesozoic Orthoptera sensu nov. Zootaxa 96: 1–88.

[GR02] Gorochov, A. V., & A. P. Rasnitsyn. 2002. Superorder Gryllidea Laicharting, 1781 (=Orthopteroidea Handlirsch, 1903). In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 293–303. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[RJ93] Ross, A. J., & E. A. Jarzembowski. 1993. Arthropoda (Hexapoda; Insecta). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 363–426. Chapman & Hall: London.

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