Hominini

Reconstruction of young Homo erectus, from the Neanderthal Museum.

Belongs within: Homininae.

The Hominini are a clade of primates represented in the modern fauna by a single species, the human Homo sapiens. Characteristic features of the clade include a habitually bipedal mode of locomotion and human-like dentition, with reduced canines and often thick enamel (Cela-Conde & Ayala 2003).

Hominini [Australopithecina, Australopithecinae, Praeanthropinae]
|--Sahelanthropus Brunet, Guy et al. 2002DM15, C-CA03
| `--*S. tchadensis Brunet, Guy et al. 2002BG02
`--+--Ardipithecus White, Suwa & Asfaw 1995DM15, C-CA03
| `--*A. ramidus (White, Suwa & Asfaw 1994) [=Australopithecus ramidus]C-CA03
| |--A. r. ramidusBG02
| `--A. r. kadabba Haile-Selassie 2001BG02
`--+--Orrorin Senut, Pickford et al. 2001C-CA03
| `--*O. tugenensis Senut, Pickford et al. 2001 [=Praeanthropus tugenensis]C-CA03
`--+--‘Australopithecus’ anamensis Leakey, Feibel et al. 1995DM15, C-CA03 [=Praeanthropus anamensisC-CA03]
`--+--Praeanthropus Senyürek 1955C-CA03 [incl. Praanthropus Hennig 1948 (nom. inv.) G91]
| |--P. afarensis (Johanson in Hinrichson 1978) (nom. cons.)WR00 (see below for synonymy)
| |--P. bahrelghazali Brunet et al. 1996 [=Australopithecus bahrelghazali]C-CA03
| `--P. garhi (Asfaw, White et al. 1999)C-CA03 [=Australopithecus garhiDM15]
`--+--Kenyanthropus Leakey et al. 2001DR16, C-CA03
| `--*K. platyops Leakey et al. 2001 [=Homo platyops]C-CA03
`--+--+--Australopithecus Dart 1925DR16, BR10 [incl. Plesianthropus Broom 1938C-CA03]
| | `--*A. africanus Dart 1925WR00, C-CA03 (see below for synonymy)
| `--Paranthropus Broom 1938DR16, C-CA03 (see below for synonymy)
| |--P. aethiopicus (Arambourg & Coppens 1968)DM15, C-CA03 (see below for synonymy)
| `--+--P. boisei (Leakey 1959)BR10, C-CA03 [=*Zinjanthropus boiseiWR00, Australopithecus boiseiWR00]
| `--+--*P. robustus Broom 1938G91, DM15, C-CA03 [=Australopithecus robustusWR00]
| `--P. crassidens Broom 1949H78, WR00 (see below for synonymy)
`--Homo Linnaeus 1758DR16, C-CA03 (see below for synonymy)
| i. s.: H. cepranensis Mallegni, Carnieri et al. 2003MC03
| H. gautengensis Curnoe 2010C10
| H. mauritanicus (Arambourg 1954)S03, WR00 (see below for synonymy)
| H. troglodytes Linnaeus 1758L58
|--H. floresiensis Brown, Sutikna et al. 2004DR16, DM15
`--+--+--H. habilis Leakey, Tobias & Napier 1964DR16, C-CA03 [=Australopithecus habilisL01]
| `--‘Australopithecus’ sediba Berger, de Ruiter et al. 2010DM15
`--+--H. rudolfensis (Alexeev 1986)DM15, C-CA03 (see below for synonymy)
`--+--H. georgicus Gabounia, de Lumley et al. 2002DR16, GL02
`--+--H. ergaster Groves & Mazák 1975DR16, C-CA03 [=H. erectus ergasterAG02]
`--+--H. erectus (Dubois 1892)DR16, C-CA03 (see below for synonymy)
| |--H. e. erectusHC95
| `--H. e. wushanensisHC95
`--+--H. naledi Berger et al. 2015DR16
`--+--H. antecessor Bermúdez de Castro, Arsuaga et al. 1997DR16, C-CA03
`--+--+--H. heidelbergensis Schoetensack 1908DM15, C-CA03 (see below for synonymy)
| `--H. neanderthalensis King 1864DM15, C-CA03 (see below for synonymy)
`--+--*H. sapiens Linnaeus 1758G91, DR16, C-CA03 (see below for synonymy)
| |--H. s. sapiensWA03
| |--H. s. idaltu White, Asfaw et al. 2003WA03
| `--H. s. mapaensis Kurth in Heberer 1965G91 (see below for synonymy)
|--H. helmei Dreyer 1935LF04, WR00 [=H. (*Africanthropus) helmeiG91]
`--H. rhodesiensis Woodward 1921S03, WA03 (see below for synonymy)

*Australopithecus africanus Dart 1925WR00, C-CA03 [=Homo africanusWR00; incl. A. prometheus Dart 1948WR00, A. transvaalensis Broom 1936WR00, A. africanus transvaalensisG91, *Plesianthropus transvaalensisWR00]

Homo Linnaeus 1758DR16, C-CA03 [incl. Africanthropus Dreyer 1935C-CA03, Anthropus Boyd-Dawkins 1926G91, Archanthropus Arldt 1915G91, Atlanthropus Arambourg 1954C-CA03, Cyphanthropus Pycraft 1928C-CA03, Europanthropus Wust 1950G91, Javanthropus Oppenoorth 1932G91, Maueranthropus Montandon 1943G91, Meganthropus Weidenreich 1944G91, Metanthropus Sollas 1933G91, Nipponanthropus Hasebe 1948G91, Notanthropus Sergi 1911G91, Palaeanthropus Bonarelli 1909G91, Paleoanthropus Kohl-Larsen & Reck 1936C-CA03, Pithecanthropus Dubois 1894C-CA03, Praehomo von Eickstedt 1932G91, Proanthropus Wilser 1900G99, Protanthropus Haeckel 1895C-CA03, Pseudhomo Amenghino 1909G91, Sinanthropus Black 1927C-CA03, Tchadanthropus Coppens 1965C-CA03, Telanthropus Broom & Robinson 1949C-CA03]

Homo erectus (Dubois 1892)DR16, C-CA03 [=Anthropopithecus erectusWR00, *Pithecanthropus erectusG91; incl. Homo primigenius asiaticus Weidenreich 1932G91, Praehomo asiaticus von Eickstedt 1932G91, Pongo brevirostris Krantz 1975G91, *Telanthropus capensis Broom & Robinson 1949G91, WR00, H. erectus capensis non H. capensis Broom 1917G99, H. sapiens capensisWR00, Pithecanthropus dubius von Koenigswald 1949G91, Homo dubiusH78, P. duboisii Morselli 1901G91, Hylobates giganteus Bumuller 1899G91, Hy. gigas Kruse in Bardeleben 1909G91, Homo erectus hexianensis Huang, Fang & Ye 1982G91, Sinanthropus lantianensis Woo 1964WR00, Homo leakeyi Heberer 1963 non Paterson 1940WR00, Homo erectus leakeyiG99, Homo (Proanthropus) louisleakeyi Kretzoi 1984G99, Homo modjokertensis von Koenigswald 1936G91, Pithecanthropus modjokertensisH78, H. palaeojavanicus modjokertensisG91, Pithecanthropus ngandongensis Sartono in Tuttle 1975G91, Homo erectus ngandongensisG91, Sinanthropus officinalis von Koenigswald 1953WR00, Homo erectus officinalisG91, Homo erectus olduvaiensis Tobias 1968 (n. n.)G99, *Meganthropus palaeojavanicus Weidenreich 1944G91, Australopithecus palaeojavanicusG91, Homo palaeojavanicusG91, Paranthropus palaeojavanicusG91, *Sinanthropus pekinensis Black 1927G91, WR00, Homo erectus pekinensisG91, Homo pithecanthropus Manouvrier 1896G91, Homo javanensis primigenius Houze 1896 non Homo primigenius Schaaffhausen 1880G91, Pithecanthropus robustus Weidenreich 1944G91, Homo robustusG91, Homo palaeojavanicus sangiranensis Sartono 1976G91, Praehomo asiaticus sinensis Eickstedt 1932G91, Sinanthropus sinensis (l. c. for pekinensis) non Praehomo asiaticus sinensis Eickstedt 1932G91, Homo (*Javanthropus) soloensis Oppenoorth 1932G91, Homo erectus soloensisWR00, Pithecanthropus soloensisG91, Homo erectus trinilensis Sartono 1976G91, Homo trinilis Alsberg 1922G91, Homo (Sinanthropus) erectus yuanmouensis Hu 1973G91]

Homo heidelbergensis Schoetensack 1908DM15, C-CA03 [=*Europanthropus heidelbergensisG91, H. sapiens heidelbergensisG91, *Maueranthropus heidelbergensisG91, *Palaeanthropus heidelbergensisG91, *Pseudhomo heidelbergensisG91, Praehomo europaeus von Eickstedt 1932G91; incl. Homo primigenius africanus Weidenreich 1928 non Australopithecus africanus Dart 1925G91, H. (Pithecanthropus) atlanticus Dolinar-Osole 1956G91, H. erectus bilzingslebenensis Vlcek 1978G91, H. florisbadensis Drennan 1935G91, H. kanamensis Leakey 1935G91, *Paleoanthropus njarensis Kohl-Larsen & Reck 1936WR00, Africanthropus njarasensisG91, Homo erectus (seu sapiens) palaeohungaricus Thoma 1966G91, H. petralonensis Murrill 1975G91, H. erectus petralonensisG91, H. saldanensis Drennan 1953WR00, H. (Pithecanthropus) ternifinus Dolinar-Osole 1956G91]

Homo mauritanicus (Arambourg 1954)S03 [=*Atlanthropus mauritanicusG91, H. erectus mauritanicusG99]

Homo neanderthalensis King 1864DM15, C-CA03 [=*Anthropus neanderthalensisG91, *Archanthropus neanderthalensisG91, Homo sapiens neanderthalensisWR00; incl. H. neanderthalensis var. aniensis Sergi 1935G91, Protanthropus atavus Haeckel 1895G91, H. breladensis Marett 1911WR00, H. calpicus Keith 1911WR00, H. chapellensis Buttel-Reepen 1911G91, H. ehringsdorfensis Paterson 1940 (n. n.)G91, Palaeanthropus europaeus Sergi 1910G91, H. galilaeensis Hennig 1932 (n. n.)G91, H. galilensis Joleaud 1931 (n. n.)G91, H. heringsdorfensis Moller 1928 (n. n.)G91, H. kiikkobensis Bonch-Osmolovskii 1941G91, H. mousteriensis hauseri Klaatsch & Hauser 1909G91, H. neanderthalensis var. krapinensis Gorjanovic-Kramberger 1902G91, H. marstoni Paterson 1940 (n. n.)G91, H. transprimigenius mousteriensis Forrer 1908G91, H. murrensis Weinert 1936G91, H. naulettensis Baudouin 1916G91, H. primigenius Schaaffhausen 1880WR00, H. priscus Krause 1909 non Lapuge 1899G91, H. sapiens protosapiens Montandon 1943G91, H. sapiens shanidarensis Senyurek 1957G91, H. spyensis Krause 1909G91, H. steinheimensis Berckhemer 1936G91, H. swanscombensis Kennard 1942 (n. n.)G91, Protanthropus tabunensis Bonarelli 1944 (n. n.)G91, H. transprimigenius Forrer 1908WR00]

Homo rhodesiensis Woodward 1921S03, WA03 [=*Cyphanthropus rhodesiensisWR00, H. sapiens rhodesiensisH78]

Homo rudolfensis (Alexeev 1986)DM15, C-CA03 [=Pithecanthropus rudolfensisWR00, Australopithecus rudolfensisL01, Kenyanthropus rudolfensisL01]

*Homo sapiens Linnaeus 1758G91, DR16, C-CA03 [incl. H. aethiopicus Bory de St. Vincent 1825G99, H. australoideus africanus Drennan 1929 nec Australopithecus africanus Dart 1925 nec H. primigenius africanus Weidenreich 1928G91, *Nipponanthropus akasiensis Hasebe 1948G91, Notanthropus eurafricanus archaius Sergi 1911G91, H. capensis Broom 1917G91, H. sapiens cromagnonensis Gregory 1921G91, *Notanthropus eurafricanus Sergi 1911G91, H. mediterraneus fossilis Behm 1915G91, H. grimaldii Lapouge 1906G91, H. aurignacensis hauseri Klaatsch & Hauser 1910 non H. mousteriensis hauseri Klaatsch & Hauser 1909G91, H. larteti Pycraft 1925G91, H. leakeyi Paterson 1940G99, Palaeanthropus palestinus McCown & Keith 1932G91, H. predmostensis Absolon in Klaatsch & Heilborn 1920G91, H. priscus Lapouge 1899G91, H. fossil protoaethiopicus Giuffrida-Ruggeri 1915G91, Notanthropus eurafricanus recens Sergi 1911G91, H. spelaeus Lapouge 1899WR00, *Tchadanthropus uxoris Coppens 1965G91, H. wadjakensis Dubois 1921G91]

Homo sapiens mapaensis Kurth in Heberer 1965G91 [=H. erectus mapaensisG91; incl. H. sapiens daliensis Wu 1981G91, H. erectus narmadensis Sonakia in Delson 1985G91, H. erectus narmadensisKS91]

Paranthropus Broom 1938DR16, C-CA03 [incl. Paraustralopithecus Arambourg & Coppens 1967C-CA03, Zinjanthropus Leakey 1959C-CA03]

Paranthropus aethiopicus (Arambourg & Coppens 1968)DM15, C-CA03 [=*Paraustralopithecus aethiopicusWR00, Australopithecus aethiopicusWR00, Homo aethiopicus non Bory de St. Vincent 1925G99; incl. A. walkeri Ferguson 1989G99, Paranthropus walkeriG91]

Paranthropus crassidens Broom 1949H78, WR00 [=Australopithecus crassidensWR00, P. crassicorporal Weinert 1952G91]

Praeanthropus afarensis (Johanson in Hinrichson 1978) (nom. cons.)WR00 [=Australopithecus afarensisDR16, A. africanus afarensisG91; incl. A. africanus aethiopicus Tobias 1980 non Paraustralopithecus aethiopicus Arambourg & Coppens 1968G99, Homo aethiopicus nec Bory de St. Vincent 1825 nec Paraustralopithecus aethiopicus Arambourg & Coppens 1968G99, Meganthropus africanus Weinert 1950 (nom. rej.)SG04, *Praeanthropus africanusICZN99, Homo antiquus Ferguson 1984WSA94, Australopithecus antiquusPS03, A. africanus mioddentatus Ferguson 1987G91, Homo antiquus praegens Ferguson 1989WSA94, A. africanus tanzaniensis Tobias 1979G91]

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

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[BR10] Berger, L. R., D. J. de Ruiter, S. E. Churchill, P. Schmid, K. J. Carlson , P. H. G. M. Dirks & J. M. Kibii. 2010. Australopithecus sediba: a new species of Homo-like australopith from South Africa. Science 328: 195–204.

[BG02] Brunet, M., F. Guy, D. Pilbeam, H. T. Mackaye, A. Likius, D. Ahounta, A. Beauvilain, C. Blondel, H. Bocherens, J.-R. Boisserie, L. de Bonis, Y. Coppens, J. Dejax, C. Denys, P. Duringer, V. Eisenmann, G. Fanone, P. Fronty, D. Geraads, T. Lehmann, F. Lihoreau, A. Louchart, A. Mahamat, G. Merceron, G. Mouchelin, O. Otero, P. Pelaez Campomanes, M. Ponce de Leon, J.-C. Rage, M. Sapanet, M. Schuster, J. Sudre, P. Tassy, X. Valentin, P. Vignaud, L. Viriot, A. Zazzo & C. Zollikofer. 2002. A new hominid from the Upper Miocene of Chad, central Africa. Nature 418: 145–151.

[C-CA03] Cela-Conde, C. J., & F. J. Ayala. 2003. Genera of the human lineage. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 100 (13): 7684–7689.

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[DR16] Dembo, M., D. Radovčić, H. Garvin, M. F. Laird, L. Schroeder, J. E. Scott, J. Brophy, R. R. Ackermann, C. M. Musiba, D. J. de Ruiter, A. Ø. Mooers & M. Collard. 2016. The evolutionary relationships and age of Homo naledi: an assessment using dated Bayesian phylogenetic methods. Journal of Human Evolution 97: 17–26.

[GL02] Gabounia, L., M.-A. de Lumley, A. Vekua, D. Lordkipanidze & H. de Lumley. 2002. Découverte d’un nouvel hominidé à Dmanissi (Transcaucasie, Géorgie). Comptes Rendus Palevol 1: 243–253.

[G91] Groves, C. P. 1991. A Theory of Human and Primate Evolution revised ed. Clarendon Press: Oxford.

[G99] Groves, C. P. 1999. Nomenclature of African Plio-Pleistocene hominins. Journal of Human Evolution 37: 869–872.

[H78] Howell, F. C. 1978. Hominidae. In: Maglio, V. J., & H. B. S. Cooke (eds) Evolution of African Mammals pp. 154–248. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[HC95] Huang W., R. Ciochon, Gu Y., R. Larick, Fang Q., H. Schwarcz, C. Yonge, J. de Vos & W. Rink. 1995. Early Homo and associated artefacts from Asia. Nature 378: 275–278.

[ICZN99] ICZN. 1999. Opinion 1941: Australopithecus afarensis Johanson, 1978 (Mammalia, Primates): specific name conserved. Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature 56 (3): 223–224.

[KS91] Kennedy, K. A. R., A. Sonakia, J. Chiment & K. K. Verma. 1991. Is the Narmada hominid an Indian Homo erectus? American Journal of Physical Anthropology 86: 475–496.

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[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[MC03] Mallegni, F., E. Carnieri, M. Bisconti, G. Tartarelli, S. Ricci, I. Biddittu & A. Segre. 2003. Homo cepranensis sp. nov. and the evolution of African-European Middle Pleistocene hominids. Comptes Rendus Palevol 2: 153–159.

[PS03] Pickford, M., B. Senut, D. Gommery & J. Treil. 2003. Bipedalism in Orrorin tugenensis revealed by its femora. Comptes Rendus Palevol 1: 191–203.

[SG04] Strait, D. S., & F. E. Grine. 2004. Inferring hominoid and early hominid phylogeny using craniodental characters: the role of fossil taxa. Journal of Human Evolution 47 (6): 349–452.

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[WA03] White, T. D., B. Asfaw, D. DeGusta, H. Gilbert, G. D. Richards, G. Suwa & F. C. Howell. 2003. Pleistocene Homo sapiens from Middle Awash, Ethiopia. Nature 423: 742–747.

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