Hoplothripini

 Oncothrips morrisi, from CSIRO.

Belongs within: Phlaeothripidae.
Contains: Kladothrips, Hoplothrips, Carathrips, Eugynothrips, Holopothrips, Liothrips, Teuchothrips, Leeuweniini, Gynaikothrips.

The Hoplothripini was defined by Priesner (1960) as a group of phlaeothripid thrips with wings usually even in width or narrowed towards the middle and then parallel-sided, rarely expanded towards the end, and with reticulation rarely present. This was explicitly intended as a residual assemblage of genera lacking the characters of more distinctive tribes within Phlaeothripinae; as such, it is almost certainly not monophyletic. Nevertheless, the core of this assemblage may correspond to the Liothrips lineage of leaf-feeding thrips which usually have one sense cone on antennal segment III and three on segment IV, undeveloped pronotal basantra, and parallel-sided fore wings (Mound & Marullo 1996).

Characters (from Priesner 1960): Wings usually even in width or narrowed towards the middle and then parallel-sided, rarely expanded towards the end. Reticulation rarely present.

<==HoplothripiniP60
    |  i. s.: Dyscolothrips Mamet 1967M04
    |           `--D. priesneriM04
    |         Pygmaeothrips Karny 1920M70, MM96 [incl. Micropsothrips De Santis 1950MM96, Polyporothrips Watson 1927MM96]
    |           `--P. angusticeps (Hood 1908)MM96 (see below for synonymy)
    |--Dactylothrips [Dactylothripina]P60
    |    |--D. priscusA78
    |    `--D. tasmaniA78
    |--Hoodiana [Hoodianina]P60
    |--Rhinoceps Faure 1949MM96 [RhinocipitinaP60]
    |    `--*R. jansei Faure 1949 [incl. R. cornutus Zur Strassen 1972]MM96
    |--CephalothripinaP60
    |    |--Gnophothrips Hood & Williams 1915P60, MM96
    |    |    `--G. fuscus (Morgan 1913) [=Trichothrips fuscus; incl. *G. megaceps, G. piniphilus Crawford 1938]MM96
    |    `--JacotiaP60
    |         |--J. glyptusMDT13
    |         |--J. idaeusMDT13
    |         |--J. palmeraeMDT13
    |         `--J. rhodorcha Mound & Minaei 2006T13
    |--Lispothrips Reuter 1899MM96 [LispothripinaP60]
    |    |--*L. wasastjernae Reuter 1899MM96
    |    |--L. birdi Moulton 1929MM96
    |    |--L. brevicruralis (Shull 1909) [=Trichothrips brevicruralis]MM96
    |    |--L. crassipes (Jablonowski 1894) [=Phloeothrips crassipes]MM96
    |    |--L. populi Moulton 1929MM96
    |    `--L. salicarius (Hood 1913) [=Rhynchothrips salicarius; incl. L. varicornis Moulton 1929]MM96
    |--CercothripinaP60
    |    |--CercothripsP60
    |    |    |--C. nigrodentatusA78
    |    |    `--C. priesneriA78
    |    `--Gigantothrips Zimmermann 1900P60, MM96
    |         |--*G. elegans Zimmerman 1900MM96
    |         |--G. aferA78
    |         |--G. halidayi (Newman 1855) [=Idolothrips halidayi]MP83
    |         |--G. nigrodentatusMM96
    |         |--G. priesneriA78
    |         |--G. rossi Moulton 1947MM96
    |         `--G. seshadriiMM96
    |--KladothripinaP60
    |    |--Alocothrips hadrocerusP60, A78
    |    |--AmothripsP60
    |    |--ChelaeothripsP60
    |    |    |--C. annamensisA78
    |    |    `--C. idolicepsA78
    |    |--CholeothripsP60
    |    |    |--C. geijeraeA78
    |    |    `--C. percnusA78
    |    |--DimorphothripsP60
    |    |    |--D. idolicepsA78
    |    |    |--D. microchaetusA78
    |    |    `--D. solitusA78
    |    |--EurynothripsP60
    |    |--GrypothripsP60
    |    |    |--G. curiosus Girault 1927G27
    |    |    `--G. mantis Karny 1924GM79
    |    |--KellyiaP60
    |    |    |--K. biadenesP73
    |    |    `--K. hoodianusA78
    |    |--KoptothripsP60
    |    |    |--K. distritusA78
    |    |    |--K. flavicornisA78
    |    |    |--K. xenusA78
    |    |    `--K. zelusA78
    |    |--MoultoniaP60
    |    |--Sumatrothrips filicepsP60, A78
    |    |--Thaumatothrips froggatti Karny 1922P60, M70
    |    |--KladothripsBMW13
    |    |--OncothripsP60
    |    |    |--O. antennatusLD04
    |    |    |--O. habrusLD04
    |    |    |--O. morrisiLD04
    |    |    |--O. rodwayiLD04
    |    |    |--O. schwarziLD04
    |    |    |--O. sterniLD04
    |    |    |--O. tepperi [incl. Brithothrips fuscus]A78
    |    |    |--O. torusLD04
    |    |    `--O. waterhouseiLD04
    |    |--OnychothripsP60
    |    |    |--O. arotrumLD04
    |    |    |--O. hakeaeA78
    |    |    |--O. pilbaraLD04
    |    |    `--O. zygusLD04
    |    |--Byctothrips ayyariA78
    |    |--CsirothripsA78
    |    |--KatothripsA78
    |    |    |--K. brevitibia (Girault 1928)P73, G28b [=Watsoniella brevitibiaP73]
    |    |    |--K. hyrumA78
    |    |    |--K. pendulaeA78
    |    |    |--K. tityrusA78
    |    |    `--K. yammaA78
    |    `--WarithripsA78
    `--Hoplothripina [Liothripinae]M70
         |  i. s.: HoplothripsMDT13
         |         AcaciothripsP60
         |         Adelphothrips tristisP60, A78
         |         Aliothrips elegantulusP60, A78
         |         ArrhenothripsP60
         |           |--A. acuminatusA78
         |           |--A. dhumrapakshaA78
         |           |--A. pacificusA78
         |           `--A. ramakrishnae Hood 1912A78
         |         AthlibothripsP60
         |         Austrothrips cochinchinensisP60, A78
         |         BrachythripsP60
         |         CarathripsP60
         |         CephenothripsP60
         |         ChaetokarnyiaP60
         |         Coryphothrips trochicepsP60, A78
         |         EugynothripsP60
         |         EumorphothripsP60
         |         Eurhynchothrips flavicornisP60, A78
         |         HolopothripsP60
         |         IsotrichothripsP60
         |         LeptoliothripsP60
         |         LiophloeothripsP60
         |         LiothripsP60
         |         LitotetothripsP60
         |         Mallothrips indicusP60, A78
         |         ManothripsP60
         |         Megeugynothrips efflatouniP60, A78
         |         Mesicothrips plicansP60, A78
         |         Mimothrips longicornisP60, A78
         |         OdontoplothripsP60
         |         NecrothripsP60
         |         NephothripsP60
         |         ParateuchothripsP60
         |         Phasmothrips asparatusP60, A78
         |         PnigmothripsP60
         |         Prosantothrips hyalopterusP60, A78
         |         RamakrishnaiellaP60
         |         SauridothripsP60
         |         ScelothripsP60
         |         SunaitiothripsP60
         |         Syringothrips gallicolaP60, A78
         |         Tetradothrips foliiperdaP60, A78
         |         ThlibothripsP60
         |           |--T. atavusA78
         |           `--T. nigricaudusA78
         |         Tolmetothrips grantiP60, A78
         |         Vuilletia houardiP60, A78
         |         Xiphidothrips tambourisaeP60, A78
         |         Zelotothrips fuscipennisP60, A78
         |         Holcothrips Hood 1954P60, MM96
         |           `--*H. achmaeae Hood 1954MM96
         |         Neothrips Hood 1908P60, MM96
         |           `--*N. corticis Hood 1908MM96
         |         Plagiothrips Priesner 1968P60, MM96
         |           `--*P. eugeniae (Costa Lima 1935) (see below for synonymy)MM96
         |         Neocecidothrips Bagnall 1929P60, M08
         |           |--*N. bursariae (Moulton 1927) (see below for synonymy)M08
         |           `--N. curviseta (Girault 1926) [=Horistothrips curviseta]M08
         |         Hindsiothrips Stannard 1958P60, MM96
         |           |--*H. pullatus (Hood 1925) [=Hindsiana pullata]MM96
         |           |--H. bonesi [incl. H. oettingeni]MM96
         |           `--H. robustisetis (Watson & Preer 1939) [=Eurythrips robustisetis]MM96
         |         Trybomia Karny 1911P60, MM96 [incl. Ommatothrips Hood 1915MM96]
         |           |--T. intermedius (Bagnall 1910) (see below for synonymy)MM96
         |           |--T. brevitubus (Moulton 1929) [=Diceratothrips brevitubus]MM96
         |           |--T. elongatus (Bagnall 1910) [=Liothrips elongatus]MM96
         |           |--T. gossypii (Hood 1915) [=*Ommatothrips gossypii]MM96
         |           `--T. mendesi Moulton 1933MM96
         |         Trichinothrips Bagnall 1929P60, MM96
         |           |--*T. branderi Bagnall 1929MM96
         |           |--T. callipechys Hood 1952MM96
         |           |--T. latifrons Hood 1956MM96
         |           |--T. panamensis Hood 1935MM96
         |           |--T. pusillus Hood 1954MM96
         |           `--T. sensilis Hood 1952MM96
         |         Horistothrips Morgan 1913P60, M08 [incl. Aspidothrips Karny 1920M08]
         |           |--*H. australiae Morgan 1913 [incl. H. corticis Girault 1929, Elaphrothrips thoreauini Girault 1929]M08
         |           |--H. claruspilusM08
         |           |--H. magnafemoraM08
         |           |--H. pallidispinosusM08
         |           |--H. platygaster (Karny 1920) (see below for synonymy)M08
         |           `--H. quadriconus Girault 1928G28a
         |         Akthethrips Mound 1970M70
         |           `--*A. strobus Mound 1970M70
         |         AclystothripsA78
         |           |--A. aberransA78
         |           `--A. priesneriA78
         |         Ayyarothrips abstrususA78
         |         Carius malagassusA78
         |         Corycidothrips inquilinusA78
         |         CrotonothripsA78
         |           |--C. coorgensisA78
         |           |--C. dantahastaA78
         |           |--C. davidiA78
         |           |--C. dhirgavadanaA78
         |           |--C. dissimilisA78
         |           |--C. gallarumA78
         |           |--C. memecylonicusA78
         |           `--C. mimicusA78
         |         Dixothrips onerosusA78
         |         EothripsA78
         |           |--E. coimbatorensisA78
         |           |--E. crassicornisA78
         |           |--E. laticaudaA78
         |           `--E. schouteniaeA78
         |         LiophlaeothripsA78
         |           |--L. ablususA78
         |           |--L. cecidiiA78
         |           |--L. curtusA78
         |           |--L. longusA78
         |           |--L. segnisA78
         |           `--L. vichitravarnaA78
         |         Lygothrips jambuvasiA78
         |         Mixothrips Stannard 1968A78, MM96
         |           |--*M. craigheadi Stannard 1968MM96
         |           `--M. nakaharai Mound & Marullo 1996MM96
         |         PhorinothripsA78
         |           |--P. loranthiA78
         |           `--P. minusculusA78
         |         Psenothrips priesneriA78
         |         Sphingothrips trachypogonA78
         |         Synergothrips prolatusA78
         |         SchedothripsA78
         |           |--S. orientalisA78
         |           `--S. tumidusA78
         |         Senegothrips coutiniA78
         |--+--TeuchothripsBMW13
         |  `--Heligmothrips Mound 1970BMW13, M08
         |       |--*H. erinaceus (Karny 1920) [=Trichothrips erinaceus; incl. Teuchothrips fuscipennis Moulton 1968]M70
         |       |--H. brevidens (Hood 1918) (see below for synonymy)M70
         |       |--H. eiletus Mound 1970M70
         |       |--H. frickeri Mound 1970M70
         |       `--H. gracilior (Hood 1918) (see below for synonymy)M70
         `--+--LeeuweniiniBMW13
            `--GynaikothripsBMW13

Heligmothrips brevidens (Hood 1918) [=Liothrips brevidens, Teuchothrips brevidens; incl. T. spinosus Moulton 1968]M70

Heligmothrips gracilior (Hood 1918) [=Liothrips gracilior, Teuchothrips gracilior; incl. T. albipennis Moulton 1968]M70

Horistothrips platygaster (Karny 1920) [=*Aspidothrips platygaster; incl. H. calvus Karny 1920, H. impennis Karny 1920, H. ischnosoma Karny 1920]M08

*Neocecidothrips bursariae (Moulton 1927) [=Eothrips bursariae; incl. Cryptothrips schilleri Girault 1927, Teuchothrips schilleri]M08

*Plagiothrips eugeniae (Costa Lima 1935) [=Gynaikothrips eugeniae, Homorothrips eugeniae, Mixothrips eugeniae]MM96

Pygmaeothrips angusticeps (Hood 1908)MM96 [=Trichothrips angusticepsMM96; incl. Poecilothrips biformis Moulton 1934MM96, *Pygmaeothrips columniceps Karny 1920MM96, Hoplothrips dallasi Moulton 1933MM96, Py. ferecaecus Priesner 1929MM96, *Micropsothrips ganodermae De Santis 1950MM96, *Polyporothrips longipilosus Watson 1927MM96, Liothrips priscus Karny 1920M70, L. silvifilia Girault 1927MM96, G27]

Trybomia intermedius (Bagnall 1910) [=Liothrips intermedius; incl. T. fiebrigi Priesner 1921, *T. phasma Karny 1911]MM96

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[A78] Ananthakrishnan, T. N. 1978. Thrips galls and gall thrips. Zoological Survey of India, Technical Monograph 1: 1–69, 26 pls.

[BMW13] Buckman, R. S., L. A. Mound & M. F. Whiting. 2013. Phylogeny of thrips (Insecta: Thysanoptera) based on five molecular loci. Systematic Entomology 38: 123–133.

[G27] Girault, A. A. 1927. Thysanoptera nova Australiensis. II. Privately published (reprinted: Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 214–215).

[G28a] Girault, A. A. 1928a. Some new hexapods stolen from authority. Privately published (reprinted: Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 221–224).

[G28b] Girault, A. A. 1928b. Some Insecta and a new All Highness. Privately published (reprinted: Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 225–228).

[GM79] Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 1–400.

[LD04] Lin, C.-P., & B. N. Danforth. 2004. How do insect nuclear and mitochondrial gene substitution patterns differ? Insights from Bayesian analyses of combined datasets. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 30: 686–702.

[M70] Mound, L. A. 1970. Convoluted maxillary stylets and the systematics of some phlaeothripine Thysanoptera from Casuarina trees in Australia. Australian Journal of Zoology 18: 439–463.

[M04] Mound, L. A. 2004. Australian long-tailed gall thrips (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripinae, Leeuweniini), with comments on related Old World taxa. Australian Journal of Entomology 43: 28–37.

[M08] Mound, L. A. 2008. Identification and host associations of some Thysanoptera Phlaeothripinae described from Australia pre-1930. Zootaxa 1714: 41–60.

[MDT13] Mound, L. A., L.-H. Dang & D. J. Tree. 2013. Genera of fungivorous Phlaeothripinae (Thysanoptera) from dead branches and leaf-litter in Australia. Zootaxa 3681 (3): 201–224.

[MM96] Mound, L. A., & R. Marullo. 1996. The thrips of Central and South America: an introduction (Insecta: Thysanoptera). Memoirs on Entomology, International 6: 1–487.

[MP83] Mound, L. A., & J. M. Palmer. 1983. The generic and tribal classification of spore-feeding Thysanoptera (Phlaeothripidae: Idolothripinae). Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History): Entomology series 46 (1): 1–174.

[P73] Pitkin, B. R. 1973. A revision of the Australian Haplothripini, with descriptions of three new species (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae). Aust. Ent. Soc. 12: 315–339.

[P60] Priesner, H. 1960. Das System der Tubulifera (Thysanoptera). Anzeiger der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Klasse 13: 283–296.

[T13] Taylor, C. K. 2013. Annotated bibliography for Barrow Island terrestrial invertebrates. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 83: 135–144.

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