Hyacinthaceae

Albuca shawii, copyright Annie’s Annuals & Perennials.
Belongs within: Petrosaviidae.
Contains: Urgineoideae, Hyacinthoideae, Ornithogalum.

The Hyacinthaceae are a group of bulbous herbs found primarily in warmer regions of the Old World with the exception of the South American genus Oziroe (Eggli & Nyffeler 2020).

Characters (from Eggli & Nyffeler 2020): Perennial bulbous herbs, rarely rhizomatous, bulbs geophytic or rarely above-ground, bulb scales rarely separate from each other and strongly succulent; roots fleshy, contractile, rarely thickened storage roots; leaves basal, numerous or few or rarely solitary, rarely early deciduous, rarely absent in adult plants, lamina linear to oblong, mostly flat, strap-shaped, occasionally softly succulent, sometimes broadly ovate or tapering; inflorescence racemose, paniculate or spicate, rarely climbing if the only assimilating organ of the plant, bracteate; pedicel not articulated; flowers bisexual, actinomorphic or rarely zygomorphic, 3-merous; tepals in 2 whorls of 3, free or basally connate, sometimes forming a tube, often white but colour variable; stamens 6 but sometimes only 3 fertile, free or often basally adnate to the tepals; filaments flat, often lanceolate; anthers dorsifixed, introrse, dehiscing longitudinally or rarely with an apical pore; ovary superior (rarely semi-inferior), 3-locular; ovules few, placentation axillary; style terete; fruit loculicidal capsules; seeds variable, often ovoid to orbicular, sometimes winged.

<==Hyacinthaceae [Eucomidaceae, Lachenaliaceae, Ornithogalaceae, Scillaceae]
|–Oziroe [Oziroeoideae] MGF04
|    `–O. biflora MGF04
`–+–+–Urgineoideae MGF04
|  `–Hyacinthoideae MGF04
`–Ornithogaloideae EN20
|–Ornithogalum MGF04
|–Dipcadieae EN20
|    |–Pseudogaltonia (Kuntze) Engl. in Engl. & Prantl 1888 EN20, MGF04 (see below for synonymy)
|    |    `–P. clavata (Mast.) Phillips 1935 (see below for synonymy) MGF04
|    `–Dipcadi Medikus 1790 (see below for synonymy) EN20
|         |  i. s.: *Polemannia’ hyacinthiflora EN20
|         |–D. ser. Dipcadi EN20
|         |    |–*D. serotinum (Linnaeus) Medik. 1790 EN20, MGF04 (see below for synonymy)
|         |    `–D. brevifolium (Thunberg) Fourcade 1932 (see below for synonymy) EN20
|         `–+–D. glaucum (Burch.) Baker 1871 (see below for synonymy) MGF04
|            `–+–‘Ornithogalum’ dipcadioides [incl. Dipcadi gracillimum non O. gracillimum Fries 1927] MGF04
|               `–D. viride (Linnaeus) Moench 1802 MGF04 (see below for synonymy)
`–Albuca Linné 1762 (see below for synonymy) EN20
|  i. s.: ‘Ornithogalum’ amoenum [=*Battandiera amoena] EN20
|         A. batteniana Hilliard & Burtt 1985 (see below for synonymy) EN20
|         A. buffelspoortensis Van Jaarsveld 2016 EN20
|         A. canadensis (L.) Leighton 1948 EN20, CC87 [=Ornithogalum canadense L. 1753 CC87]
|         A. cremnophila Van Jaarsveld & van Wyk 2000 (see below for synonymy) EN20
|         A. deaconii Van Jaarsveld 2013 EN20
|         A. dilucula (Obermeyer) Manning & Goldblatt 2009 (see below for synonymy) EN20
|         ‘Ornithogalum’ fuscatum [=*Adernia fuscata, *Ardernia fuscata, *Trimelopter fuscatus] EN20
|         A. gildenhuysii (Van Jaarsveld) Van Jaarsveld 2016 (see below for synonymy) EN20
|         A. juncifolia Baker 1876 (see below for synonymy) EN20
|         A. karachabpoortensis (Müller-Doblies & Müller-Doblies) Manning & Goldblatt 2009 (see below for synonymy) EN20
|         A. kirstenii (Manning & Goldblatt) Manning & Goldblatt 2009 (see below for synonymy) EN20
|         A. lebaensis (Van Jaarsveld) Manning & Goldblatt 2011 (see below for synonymy) EN20
|         A. nelsonii Brown 1880 [=Ornithogalum nelsonii (Brown) Manning & Goldblatt 2004] EN20
|         A. pendula Mathew 1994 [=Ornithogalum pendulum (Mathew) Manning & Goldblatt 2004] EN20
|         A. scabrocostata (Müller-Doblies & Müller-Doblies) Manning & Goldblatt 2009 (see below for synonymy) EN20
|         ‘Ornithogalum’ secundum [=*Monotassa secunda] EN20
|         A. tenuifolia Baker 1872 [=Ornithogalum nematophyllum Manning & Goldblatt 2004] EN20
|         A. thermarum Van Jaarsveld 2003 (see below for synonymy) EN20
|         A. unifoliata Rowley 1975 (see below for synonymy) EN20
|         ‘Ornithogalum’ virens [=*Tomoxis virens] EN20
|         A. vittata [=*Taeniola vittata] EN20
|         ‘Urginea’ volubilis Perrier de la Bathie 1938 [=*Igidia volubilis (Perrier) Speta 1998] MGF04
|         A. sect. Albuca EN20
|           |–*A. major Linné 1762 EN20 (see below for synonymy)
|           `–A. spiralis Linné 1782 (see below for synonymy) EN20
|         A. subg. Monarchos (Müller-Doblies & Müller-Doblies) Manning & Goldblatt 2009 (see below for synonymy) EN20
|–A. subg. Urophyllon (Salisbury) Manning & Goldblatt 2009 [=Urophyllon Salisbury 1866] EN20
|    `–A. bracteata (Thunberg) Manning & Goldblatt 2009 EN20 (see below for synonymy)
|–+–‘Stellarioides’ seinerii MGF04
|  `–A. subg. Namibiogalum (Müller-Doblies & Müller-Doblies) Manning & Goldblatt 2009 (see below for synonymy) EN20
|       |–A. gariepensis Manning & Goldblatt 2011 EN20
|       `–‘Ornithogalum’ stapfii MGF04 (see below for synonymy)
`–+–+–A. abyssinica Jacq. 1783 (see below for synonymy) MGF04
|  `–A. amboensis [=Ornithogalum amboense] MGF04
`–+–A. subg. Osmyne (Salisbury) Manning & Goldblatt 2009 EN20 (see below for synonymy)
|    |–‘Ornithogalum’ odoratum [=*Osmyne odorata] EN20
|    |–‘Coilonox’ inapertum MGF04
|    |–‘Ornithogalum’ polyphyllum Jacq. 1795 [=Coilonox polyphyllum] MGF04
|    `–‘Ornithogalum’ suaveolens (see below for synonymy) MGF04
`–+–A. setosa Jacq. 1797 (see below for synonymy) MGF04
`–+–A. tortuosa Baker 1897 (see below for synonymy) MGF04
`–+–A. clanwilliamae-gloria Müller-Doblies 1996 MGF04, EN20 (see below for synonymy)
`–A. sect. Falconera [=Falconera Salisbury 1866] EN20
|–A. viscosa Linnaeus 1782 MGF04 (see below for synonymy)
|–A. crudenii Archibald 1956 (see below for synonymy) EN20
`–A. shawii Baker 1874 MGF04 (see below for synonymy)

Albuca Linné 1762 [incl. Adernia Salisbury 1866 (nom. illeg.), Ardernia Salisbury 1866 (nom. illeg.), Battandiera Maire 1926, Branciona Salisbury 1866, Fenelonia Rafinesque 1832, Igidia Speta 1998, Monotassa Salisbury 1866, Pallastema Salisbury 1866, Stellarioides Medikus 1790, Taeniola Salisbury 1866 nec Pallas 1760 (ICZN) nec Bonord. 1851, Tomoxis Rafinesque 1837, Trimelopter Rafinesque 1837; Albuceae] EN20

Albuca subg. Monarchos (Müller-Doblies & Müller-Doblies) Manning & Goldblatt 2009 [=Ornithogalum sect. Monarchos Müller-Doblies & Müller-Doblies 1996] EN20

Albuca subg. Namibiogalum (Müller-Doblies & Müller-Doblies) Manning & Goldblatt 2009 [=Ornithogalum sect. Namibiogalum Müller-Doblies & Müller-Doblies 1996] EN20

Albuca subg. Osmyne (Salisbury) Manning & Goldblatt 2009 EN20 [=Osmyne Salisbury 1866 EN20; incl. Coilonox Rafinesque 1832 MGF04, EN20]

Albuca abyssinica Jacq. 1783 MGF04 [=Ornithogalum abyssinicum (Jacq.) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 MGF04, *Pallastema abyssinica EN20]

Albuca batteniana Hilliard & Burtt 1985 [=Ornithogalum battenianum (Hilliard & Burtt) Manning & Goldblatt 2004] EN20

Albuca bracteata (Thunberg) Manning & Goldblatt 2009 EN20 [=Ornithogalum bracteatum Thunberg 1794 EN20, *Fenelonia bracteata (Thunberg) Rafinesque 1832 EN20; incl. *Stellarioides canaliculata Medikus 1790 MGF04, EN20, Eliokarmos caudatum Rafinesque 1837 EN20, Ornithogalum caudatum Aiton 1789 (nom. illeg.) MGF04, *Urophyllon caudatum EN20, O. longibracteatum Jacquin 1776 MGF04, EN20, Stellarioides longibracteata (Jacquin) Speta 2001 EN20, O. massonii Gmelin 1791 MGF04, Urginea mouretii Battandier & Trabut 1921 EN20, O. scilloides Jacquin 1797 EN20]

Albuca clanwilliamae-gloria Müller-Doblies 1996 MGF04, EN20 [=Ornithogalum clanwilliamae-gloria (Müller-Doblies) Manning & Goldblatt 2004 EN20]

Albuca cremnophila Van Jaarsveld & van Wyk 2000 [=Ornithogalum cremnophilum (Van Jaarsveld & van Wyk) Manning & Goldblatt 2004] EN20

Albuca crudenii Archibald 1956 [=Ornithogalum crudenii (Archibald) Manning & Goldblatt 2004] EN20

Albuca dilucula (Obermeyer) Manning & Goldblatt 2009 [=Ornithogalum diluculum Obermeyer 1978, Coilonox diluculum (Obermeyer) Speta 2001] EN20

Albuca gildenhuysii (Van Jaarsveld) Van Jaarsveld 2016 [=Ornithogalum gildenhuysii Van Jaarsveld 2012] EN20

Albuca juncifolia Baker 1876 [incl. A. imbricata Leighton 1947, Ornithogalum imbricatum (Leighton) Manning & Goldblatt 2004] EN20

Albuca karachabpoortensis (Müller-Doblies & Müller-Doblies) Manning & Goldblatt 2009 [=Ornithogalum karachabpoortense Müller-Doblies & Müller-Doblies 1996] EN20

Albuca kirstenii (Manning & Goldblatt) Manning & Goldblatt 2009 [=Ornithogalum kirstenii Manning & Goldblatt 2006] EN20

Albuca lebaensis (Van Jaarsveld) Manning & Goldblatt 2011 [=Ornithogalum lebaense Van Jaarsveld 2010, Stellarioides lebaensis (Van Jaarsveld) Martínez-Azorín & Crespo 2012] EN20

*Albuca major Linné 1762 EN20 [incl. A. maxima Burm.f. 1768 MGF04, Ornithogalum maximum (Burm.f.) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 MGF04]

Albuca scabrocostata (Müller-Doblies & Müller-Doblies) Manning & Goldblatt 2009 [=Ornithogalum scabrocostatum Müller-Doblies & Müller-Doblies 1996, Coilonox scabrocostatum (Müller-Doblies & Müller-Doblies) Speta 2001] EN20

Albuca setosa Jacq. 1797 MGF04 [=*Branciona setosa EN20, Ornithogalum setosum (Jacq.) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 MGF04]

Albuca shawii Baker 1874 MGF04 [=Ornithogalum shawii (Baker) Manning & Goldblatt 2004 EN20; incl. A. elliotii Baker 1881 EN20, A. granulata Baker 1904 EN20, A. minima Baker 1897 EN20, A. trichophylla Baker 1889 EN20]

Albuca spiralis Linné 1782 [=Falconera spiralis (Linné) Salisbury ex Jackson 1895; incl. Ornithogalum circinatum Manning & Goldblatt 2004 (nom. illeg.), Albuca viridiflora Jacquin 1797, O. volutare Manning & Goldblatt 2006] EN20

Albuca thermarum Van Jaarsveld 2003 [=Ornithogalum thermarum (Van Jaarsveld) Manning & Goldblatt 2004] EN20

Albuca tortuosa Baker 1897 [=Ornithogalum tortile Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004] MGF04

Albuca unifoliata Rowley 1975 [=Coilonox unifoliatum (Rowley) Speta 2001, Ornithogalum unifoliatum (Rowley) Obermeyer 1978] EN20

Albuca viscosa Linnaeus 1782 MGF04 [=*Falconera viscosa EN20, Ornithogalum viscosum (Linnaeus) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 MGF04]

Dipcadi Medikus 1790 [=Tricharis Salisbury 1866 (nom. illeg.); incl. Polemannia Bergius ex Schlechtendal 1826 (nom. rej.), Uropetalon Burchell ex Ker Gawler 1816, Uropetalum Burchell 1822 (nom. inv.), Zuccagnia Thunberg 1798 (nom. rej.)] EN20

Dipcadi brevifolium (Thunberg) Fourcade 1932 [=Hyacinthus brevifolius Thunberg 1794, Baeoterpe brevifolia (Thunberg) Salisbury 1866 (nom. inv.), Periboea brevifolia (Thunberg) Kunth 1843, Scilla brevifolia (Thunberg) Ker Gawler 1812; incl. Lachenalia graminifolia Solander ex Baker 1870, Polemannia hyacinthoides Bergius ex Schlechtendal 1826, Dipcadi hyacinthoides (Bergius ex Schlechtendal) Baker 1871, Ornithogalum hyacinthoides (Baker) Manning & Goldblatt 2004 (nom. inv.), Uropetalon hyacinthoides (Bergius ex Schlechtendal) Sprengel 1827, Dipcadi spirale Baker 1892] EN20

Dipcadi glaucum (Burch.) Baker 1871 [=Uropetalon glaucum Burch. ex Ker Gawl. 1816 non Ornithogalum glaucum Dethard. ex Schult.f. 1702; incl. D. magnum Baker 1898, O. magnum (Baker) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004] MGF04

*Dipcadi serotinum (Linnaeus) Medik. 1790 EN20, MGF04 [=Hyacinthus serotinus Linnaeus 1753 MGF04, Ornithogalum serotinum (Linnaeus) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 MGF04, *Tricharis serotinus EN20]

Dipcadi viride (Linnaeus) Moench 1802 MGF04 [=Hyacinthus viridis Linnaeus 1762 MGF04, Ornithogalum viride (Linnaeus) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 MGF04, *Uropetalon viride EN20]

‘Ornithogalum’ stapfii MGF04 [=Battandiera stapfii EN20, Stellarioides stapfii MGF04; incl. O. dinteri Baker 1901 MGF04, O. karasbergense Glover 1915 MGF04, O. spirale Schinz 1896 MGF04]

‘Ornithogalum’ suaveolens [=Coilonox suaveolens; incl. Anthericum albucoides, *C. albucoides] MGF04

Pseudogaltonia (Kuntze) Engl. in Engl. & Prantl 1888 EN20, MGF04 [incl. Lindneria Durand & Lubbers 1899 MGF04]

Pseudogaltonia clavata (Mast.) Phillips 1935 [=Galtonia clavata Mast. 1884, Lindneria clavata (Mast.) Speta 1985, Ornithogalum clavatum (Mast.) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004; incl. *Lindneria fibrillosa, Hyacinthus pechuelii, *Pseudogaltonia pechuelii] MGF04

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[CC87] Clifford, H. T., J. G. Conran, J. B. Williams, R. J. F. Henderson, H. J. Hewson, E. M. Watson, G. J. Keighery, D. M. Churchill, I. R. H. Telford, A. Thongpukdee, N. H. Brittan, A. S. George, W. T. Stearn & T. D. Macfarlane. 1987. Liliaceae. Flora of Australia 45: 148–419.

[EN20] Eggli, U., & R. Nyffeler (eds) 2020. Illustrated Handbook of Succulent Plants: Monocotyledons 2nd ed. Springer.

[MGF04] Manning, J. C., P. Goldblatt & M. F. Fay. 2004. A revised generic synopsis of Hyacinthaceae in sub-Saharan Africa, based on molecular evidence, including new combinations and the new tribe Pseudoprospereae. Edinburgh Journal of Botany 60 (3): 533–568.

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