Grape hyacinth Muscari neglectum, copyright Meneerke bloem.

Belongs within: Hyacinthaceae.
Contains: Scilla, Ledebouria, Lachenalia.

The Hyacinthoideae are the largest of the subfamilies recognised in the Hyacinthaceae, including the northern Holarctic members of the family together with a number of southern African taxa. Members of the Hyacinthoideae have a penicillate stigma and ellipsoid or globose to pear-shaped seeds (Manning et al. 2004). Phylogenetic analysis supports the separation of the Northern Hemisphere taxa as the tribe Hyacintheae, with most of the southern African species being placed in the tribe Massonieae except for the phylogenetically isolated Pseudoprospero firmifolium (Manning et al. 2004). The grape hyacinths of the genus Muscari produce dense spikes of mostly blue, urn-shaped flowers; several are widely grown as ornamentals.

    |--Pseudoprospero Speta 1998MGF04 [PseudoprospereaeEN20]
    |    `--*P. firmifolium [=Scilla firmifolia]MGF04
       |    |--Barnardia scilloidesMGF04
       |    |--+--Oncostema peruvianaMGF04
       |    |  `--Tractema vernaMGF04
       |    |--+--Brimeura amethystinaMGF04
       |    |  `--ScillaMGF04
       |    `--+--+--Puschkinia scilloidesMGF04
       |       |  |--HyacinthellaMGF04
       |       |  |    |--H. acutilobaMGF04
       |       |  |    `--H. leucophaeaH09
       |       |  `--+--Alrawia bellaMGF04
       |       |     `--Hyacinthus orientalisMGF04
       |       `--+--‘Scilla’ albescensMGF04
       |          `--+--BellevalliaMGF04
       |             |    |--B. flexuosaMGF04
       |             |    `--B. savicziiMGF04
       |             `--Muscari Miller 1754MGF04, CC87
       |                  |  i. s.: *M. botryoides (L.) Miller 1754CC87
       |                  |         M. armeniacum Leichtlin ex Baker 1878CC87
       |                  |         M. atlanticumV72
       |                  |         M. commutatumPT98
       |                  |         M. latifoliumV09
       |                  |         M. moschatumCC87
       |                  |         M. racemosumC55
       |                  |         M. weissiiPT98
       |                  |--M. macrocarpumMGF04
       |                  `--+--M. chalusicumMGF04
       |                     `--+--M. comosum (Linnaeus) Miller 1768MGF04, PL04 [=Hyacinthus comosus Linnaeus 1753CC87]
       |                        |--M. neglectumMGF04
       |                        `--M. tenuifloraMGF04
       `--Massonieae [Lachenaliinae, Ledebouriinae, Massoniinae]EN20
            |--Merwilla Speta 1998MGF04
            |    |--*M. dracomontana (Hilliard & Burtt) Speta 1998 [=Scilla dracomontana Hillard & Burtt 1982]EN20
            |    `--M. plumbea (Lindley) Speta 1998MGF04 (see below for synonymy)
               |--Schizocarphus Van der Merwe 1943MGF04
               |    `--*S. nervosus [=Ornithogalum nervosum]MGF04
               |--Eucomis L’Hér. 1789MGF04
               |    |  i. s.: E. pallidifloraMGF04
               |    |           |--E. p. ssp. pallidifloraMGF04
               |    |           `--E. p. ssp. pole-evansii (Br.) Reyneke ex Manning in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy)MGF04
               |    |--*E. regia [=Fritillaria regia; incl. Ornithogalum nanum (Burm.f.) Thunberg 1794]MGF04
               |    `--+--E. autumnalisMGF04
               |       `--E. humilisMGF04
               |--+--Spetaea Wetschnig & Pfosser 2003MGF04
               |  |    `--*S. lachenaliiflora Wetschnig & Pfosser 2003EN20
               |  `--Daubenya Lindley 1813 [incl. Amphisiphon Barker 1936, Androsiphon Schltr. 1924]MGF04
               |       |  i. s.: ‘Neobakeria’ heterandraERV99
               |       |         ‘Neobakeria’ marginataMGF04
               |       |--D. capensis [=*Androsiphon capense]MGF04
               |       |--‘Neobakeria’ comataMGF04
               |       |--D. namaquensis [=*Neobakeria namaquensis]MGF04
               |       |--+--*D. aureaMGF04
               |       |  `--‘Androsiphon’ albaMGF04
               |       `--+--D. stylosa [=*Amphisiphon stylosa]MGF04
               |          `--‘Neobakeria’ zeyheriMGF04
               `--+--Veltheimia Gled. 1771MGF04
                  |    |--*V. capensis [=Aletris capensis]MGF04
                  |    `--V. bracteataMGF04
                     |--Namophila Müller-Doblies & Müller-Doblies 1997MGF04
                     |    `--*N. uropetala Müller-Doblies & Müller-Doblies 1997EN20
                     `--Massonia Thunberg ex Houttuyn 1780MGF04 (see below for synonymy)
                          |  i. s.: M. angustifolia [=*Neobakeria angustifolia]EN20
                          |         M. jasminifloraERV99
                          |         ‘Desertia’ luteovirens Martínez-Azorín et al. 2015EN20
                          |--M. etesionamibensis (Müller-Doblies & Müller-Doblies) Manning & Goldblatt 2004MGF04, EN20 (see below for synonymy)
                          `--+--M. bifolia (Jacquin) Manning & Goldblatt 2004MGF04, EN20 (see below for synonymy)
                             `--+--*M. depressa Houttuyn 1781MGF04, EN20 (see below for synonymy)
                                |--M. pustulataMGF04
                                `--+--M. echinataMGF04
                                   `--M. heterandraMGF04

Eucomis pallidiflora ssp. pole-evansii (Br.) Reyneke ex Manning in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=E. pole-evansii Br. 1918]MGF04

Massonia Thunberg ex Houttuyn 1780MGF04 [incl. Desertia Martínez-Azorín et al. 2015 non Tshelnokov 1979 (ICZN)EN20, Neobakeria Schlechter 1924EN20, Whiteheadia Harvey 1868MGF04]

Massonia bifolia (Jacquin) Manning & Goldblatt 2004MGF04, EN20 [=Eucomis bifolia Jacquin 1791MGF04, Basilaea bifolia (Jacquin) Poiret 1810EN20, Whiteheadia bifolia (Jacquin) Baker 1873MGF04; incl. *W. latifolia Harvey 1868MGF04, EN20, Melanthium massoniifolium Andrews 1804EN20]

*Massonia depressa Houttuyn 1781MGF04, EN20 [incl. M. brachypus Baker 1874EN20, M. grandiflora Lindley 1826EN20, M. latifolia Linné 1781EN20, M. namaquensis Baker 1897EN20, M. obovata Jacquin 1804EN20, M. sanguinea Jacquin 1804EN20, M. triflora Compton 1931EN20]

Massonia etesionamibensis (Müller-Doblies & Müller-Doblies) Manning & Goldblatt 2004MGF04, EN20 [=Whiteheadia etesionamibensis Müller-Doblies & Müller-Doblies 1997MGF04, *Desertia estesionamibensis (Müller-Doblies & Müller-Doblies) Martínez-Azorín et al. 2015EN20]

Merwilla plumbea (Lindley) Speta 1998MGF04 [=Scilla plumbea Lindley 1830MGF04; incl. S. kraussii Baker 1873MGF04, Merwilla kraussii (Baker) Speta 1998EN20, S. natalensis Planchon 1855MGF04, M. natalensis (Planchon) Speta 1998EN20]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[CC87] Clifford, H. T., J. G. Conran, J. B. Williams, R. J. F. Henderson, H. J. Hewson, E. M. Watson, G. J. Keighery, D. M. Churchill, I. R. H. Telford, A. Thongpukdee, N. H. Brittan, A. S. George, W. T. Stearn & T. D. Macfarlane. 1987. Liliaceae. Flora of Australia 45: 148–419.

[EN20] Eggli, U., & R. Nyffeler (eds) 2020. Illustrated Handbook of Succulent Plants: Monocotyledons 2nd ed. Springer.

[ERV99] Esler, K. J., P. W. Rundel & P. Vorster. 1999. Biogeography of prostrate-leaved geophytes in semi-arid South Africa: hypotheses on functionality. Plant Ecology 142 (1–2): 105–120.

[H09] Heltmann, H. 2009. Der Königstein (Piatra Craiului), die Perle der Burzenländer Gebirge. Mauritiana 20 (3): 515–527.

[MGF04] Manning, J. C., P. Goldblatt & M. F. Fay. 2004. A revised generic synopsis of Hyacinthaceae in sub-Saharan Africa, based on molecular evidence, including new combinations and the new tribe Pseudoprospereae. Edinburgh Journal of Botany 60 (3): 533–568.

[PT98] Panitsa, M., & D. Tzanoudakis. 1998. Contribution to the study of the Greek flora: flora and vegetation of the E Aegean islands Agathonisi and Pharmakonisi. Willdenowia 28: 95–116.

[V09] Verdcourt, B. (ed.) 2009. Additions to the wild fauna and flora of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. XXVI. Miscellaneous records. Kew Bulletin 64 (1): 183–194.

[V72] Voss, E. G. 1972. Michigan Flora. Part I. Gymnosperms and Monocots. Cranbrook Institute of Science and University of Michigan Herbarium.

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