Live Nebela tincta scavenging scales from an Euglypha test, copyright Ferry Siemensma.

Belongs within: Arcellinida.

The Hyalospheniidae are a group of testate amoebozoans in which the test is composed of pseudochitin, and which have a distinctive pseudopodium conformation in which retreating pseudopodia leave a long thin pellicle that is slowly retracted (Loeblich & Tappan 1964).

Characters (from Loeblich & Tappan 1964): Test pseudochitinous, with siliceous plates or scales, rounded or angular, may have added foreign matter; aperture elongate or rounded; single nucleus; pseudopodia largely composed of ectoplasm, may have slight penetration of endoplasm near base (endolobopodia), rounded terminally during advance and retraction, but when retracting temporarily leave behind fine, structureless, hyaline pellicle which tapers to point, resembles ectoplasm in appearance, later pulls away from substratum to be resorbed.

<==Hyalospheniidae (see below for synonymy)
    |--Ochros Medioli et al. 1990HW93
    |--‘Sacculus’ Medioli et al. 1990 nec Gosse 1851 nec Hirase 1927 nec Neviani 1928HW93
    |--Pomoriella Golemansky 1970G86
    |    `--P. valkanovi Golemansky 1970G86
    |--Certesella Loeblich & Tappan 1961 [incl. Penardiella Jung 1942 (n. n.) non Kahl 1930]LT64
    |    `--*C. martiali (Certes 1891) [=Nebela martiali]LT64
    |--Jungia Loeblich & Tappan 1961LT64
    |    `--*J. sundanensis Van Oye 1949LT64
    |--Leptochlamys West 1901LT64
    |    `--*L. ampullacea West 1901LT64
    |--Pseudawerintzewia Bonnet 1959LT64
    |    `--*P. calcicola Bonnet 1959LT64
    |--Pseudonebela Gauthier-Lièvre 1954LT64
    |    `--*P. africana Gauthier-Lièvre 1954LT64
    |--Apodera Loeblich & Tappan 1961LT64
    |    `--*A. vas (Certes 1891)LT64 (see below for synonymy)
    |--Awerintzewia Schouteden 1906 (see below for synonymy)LT64
    |    |--*A. cyclostoma (Penard 1902) (see below for synonymy)LT64
    |    `--‘Physochila’ griseolaC-SCL16
    |--Porosia Jung 1942 [incl. Alocodera Jung 1942]LT64
    |    |--*P. bigibbosa (Penard 1890) [=Nebela bigibbosa]LT64
    |    `--‘Hyalosphenia’ cockayni Penard 1910 [=*Alocodera (Nebela) cockayni]LT64
    |--Quadrulella Cockerell 1909 [incl. Quadrula Schulze 1875 non Rafinesque 1820]LT64
    |    |--*Q. symmetrica (Wallich 1863) [=Difflugia proteiformis var. symmetrica, *Quadrula symmetrica]LT64
    |    |--Q. globulosaSX97
    |    `--Q. marina (Bailey 1856) [=Difflugia marina]LT64
    |--Lesquereusia Schlumberger 1845 [=Lecquereusia]LT64
    |    |--*L. jurassica Schlumberger 1845LT64
    |    |--L. modesta Rhumbler 1895LT64
    |    `--L. spiralis (Ehrenberg 1840) [=Difflugia spiralis]LT64
    |--Hyalosphenia Stein 1857G86 [incl. Catharia Leidy 1874 non Lederer 1863LT64]
    |    |--H. ligata (Tatem 1870) (see below for synonymy)LT64
    |    |--H. minutaLB90
    |    |--H. papilio Leidy 1875NM05
    |    |--H. savoiei Chardez 1978G86
    |    `--H. subflavaLB90
    `--Nebela Leidy 1875 (see below for synonymy)LT64
         |--N. collaris (Ehrenberg 1848) (see below for synonymy)LT64
         |--N. ansataLT64
         |--N. barbataPH10
         |--N. bohemicaGM03
         |--*Pterygia’ carinulata Jung 1942LT64
         |--N. dentistomaLB90
         |--N. lageniformsiLB90
         |--N. longicollis Penard 1890 [=*Cyphoderiopsis longicollis]LT64
         |--N. militarisNM05
         |--N. parvulaLB90
         |--N. tabulataLB90
         `--N. tincta [incl. N. tincta var. major Deflandre 1936]NM05

*Apodera vas (Certes 1891)LT64 [=Nebela vasLT64, Difflugia pyriformis var. vasFEF04, Pontigulasia vasFEF04; incl. P. bryophilaFEF04, P. compressa var. flexaFEF04, Nebela vas var. longicollis Grospietsch 1971 non N. longicollis Penard 1890FEF04, N. vas var. obliqua Grospietsch 1971FEF04, Apodera (Nebela) vas f. recticollis Jung 1942FEF04]

Awerintzewia Schouteden 1906 [=Averincevia Jírovec 1953, Averintzia Wailes in Cash, Wailes & Hopkinson 1919, Averinzia Jung 1942, Awerintzevia Neave 1939, Awerintzia Calkins 1926; incl. Physochila Jung 1942 (n. n.)]LT64

*Awerintzewia cyclostoma (Penard 1902) [=Heleopera cyclostoma, *Averincevia cyclostoma, *Averintzia cyclostoma, *Averinzia cyclostoma, *Awerintzevia cyclostoma, *Awerintzia cyclostoma]LT64

Hyalosphenia ligata (Tatem 1870) [=Difflugia ligata, *Catharia ligata; incl. *Hyalosphenia cuneata Stein in Schulze 1875, H. lata Schulze 1875]LT64

Hyalospheniidae [Hyalosphenidae, Lecquereusiidae, Nebelida, Nebelidae, Nebelina, Nebelinae, Nebelini, Physochilini, Quadrulellinae, Quadrulidae, Quadrulina]

Nebela Leidy 1875 [=Nebella (l. c.); incl. Argynnia Jung 1942 (n. n.), Cyphoderiopsis Playfair 1918, Deflandria Jung 1942 (n. n.), Leidyella Jung 1942 (n. n.), Pterygia Jung 1942 nec Röding 1798 nec Laporte 1832, Reticella Ehrenberg 1872 non Gray 1870, Schaudinnia Jung 1942 (n. n.) non Schulze 1900, Umbonaria Jung 1942 (n. n.)]LT64

Nebela collaris (Ehrenberg 1848) [=Difflugia collaris, D. (*Reticella) collaris; incl. D. (*Nebela) numata Leidy 1875]LT64

*Type species of generic name indicated


[C-SCL16] Cavalier-Smith, T., E. E. Chao & R. Lewis. 2016. 187-gene phylogeny of protozoan phylum Amoebozoa reveals a new class (Cutosea) of deep-branching, ultrastructurally unique, enveloped marine Lobosa and clarifies amoeba evolution. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 99: 275–296.

[FEF04] Finlay, B. J., G. F. Esteban & T. Fenchel. 2004. Protist diversity is different? Protist 155: 15–22.

[GM03] Gilbert, D., E. A. D. Mitchell, C. Amblard, G. Bourdier & A.-J. Francez. 2003. Population dynamics and food preferences of the testate amoeba Nebela tincta major-bohemica-collaris complex (Protozoa) in a Sphagnum peatland. Acta Protozoologica 42: 99–104.

[G86] Golemansky, V. G. 1986. Rhizopoda: Testacea. In: Botosaneanu, L. (ed.) Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) pp. 5–16. E. J. Brill/Dr. W. Backhuys: Leiden.

[HW93] Hart, M. B., & C. L. Williams. 1993. Protozoa. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 43–70. Chapman & Hall: London.

[LT64] Loeblich, A. R., Jr & H. Tappan. 1964. Sarcodina: chiefly “thecamoebians” and Foraminiferida. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt C. Protista 2 vol. 1. The Geological Society of America and The University of Kansas Press.

[LB90] Lousier, J. D., & S. S. Bamforth. 1990. Soil protozoa. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 97–136. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[NM05] Nikolaev, S. I., E. A. D. Mitchell, N. B. Petrov, C. Berney, J. Fahrni & J. Pawlowski. 2005. The testate lobose amoebae (order Arcellinida Kent, 1880) finally find theit home within Amoebozoa. Protist 156: 191–202.

[PH10] Pinder, A. M., S. A. Halse, R. J. Shiel & J. M. McRae. 2010. An arid zone awash with diversity: patterns in the distribution of aquatic invertebrates in the Pilbara region of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 78 (1): 205–246.

[SX97] Song B. & Xie P. 1997. Preliminary studies on the community structure of the planktonic protozoa from the outlet of Lake Dongting. Acta Hydrobiologica Sinica 21 (Suppl): 60–68.

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