Hydrachnidia

Hydrodroma sp., copyright Martin Steinmeier.

Belongs within: Parasitengonina.
Contains: Protohydrachnidia, Rhynchohydracaridae, Hydryphantidae.

The Hydrachnidia are a large group of predatory water mites with parasitic larvae. Authorities differ as to whether the divergent Stygothrombiidae, a family of predatory mites found in interstitial aquatic habitats in the Northern Hemisphere, should be placed within this group or not. Members of this family have a vermiform, posteriorly elongated idiosoma, a fused palpfemur and genu, and strongly pectinate leg claws. Larvae of stygothrombiids are parasites of Plecoptera (stoneflies). Hydrachnidia excluding the Stygothrombiidae have palps with the femur and genu separate, and usually relatively simple claws (Walter et al. 2009). Members of the clade Euhydrachnidia produce spermatophores with lateral spines on the apical wings, that are deposited in rows.

Characters (from Walter et al. 2009, as Stygothrombiidae + Hydrachnidiae): Active in or on water, or (as larvae) parasitic on aquatic insects. Adults with idiosoma and appendages usually not hypertrichous; idiosoma with series of stomatoid fissures or glandularia comprising gland-like structures that each open on a small platelet, often adjacent to associated seta. Larvae with palpgenu bearing two setae.

<==Hydrachnidia [Hydrachnellae]RFF05
    |  i. s.: Thyopsis cancellataW01
    |         Tetramegapus quadruporusG49
    |         Thyasides sphagnorumS99
    |--Stygothrombidiidae [Stygothrombiae, Stygothrombidioidea, Stygothrombiinae]DPD16
    |    |--Charonothrombium Motas & Tanasachi 1946S86a
    |    |    `--C. racovitzai Motas & Tanasachi 1946S86a
    |    |--Hydrothrombium Robaux 1969S86a
    |    |    `--H. cooki Robaux 1969S86a
    |    |--Victathrombium Habeeb 1974S86a
    |    |    `--V. ivarum (Habeeb 1974)S86a
    |    |--Cerberothrombium Viet 1934S86a
    |    |    |--C. armatum Viets 1934S86a
    |    |    |--C. bispinosum Schwoerbel 1962S86a
    |    |    |--C. caudatum Habeeb 1955S86a
    |    |    |--C. ida Habeeb 1973S86a
    |    |    |--C. paulhenrii Hebeeb 1979S86a
    |    |    |--C. stella Habeeb 1973S86a
    |    |    |--C. vermiforme (Sokolow 1944) [=Baikalacarus vermiforme]S86a
    |    |    `--C. vikrami Habeeb 1979S86a
    |    `--Stygothrombium Viets 1932S86a
    |         |--S. angelieri André 1949S86a
    |         |    |--S. a. angelieriS86a
    |         |    `--S. a. minor André 1949S86a
    |         |--S. chappuisi Walter 1947S86a
    |         |--S. cookiWL09
    |         |--S. gallicum André 1949S86a
    |         |    |--S. g. gallicumS86a
    |         |    `--S. g. delphinensis André 1949S86a
    |         |--S. hercyniensis Viets 1955S86a
    |         |--S. japonicum Imamura 1956S86a
    |         `--S. karamani Viets 1932S86a
    `--Hydrachnidiae [Hydracarina, Hydrachnida, Limnocharini]WL09
         |  i. s.: Prymnopsella bucculataGS96
         |--ProtohydrachnidiaW91
         `--Euhydrachnidia [Hydryphantoidea]WWO01
              |--RhynchohydracaridaeRFF05
              |--MalgasacaridaeZF11
              |--HydryphantidaeW91
              |--Thermacarus Sokolow 1927 [Thermacaridae]RFF05
              |    |--T. andinus Martín & Schwoerbel 2002RFF05
              |    `--T. nevadensis Marshall 1928RFF05
              |--TeratothyadidaeZF11
              |    |--TeratothyasWL09
              |    `--TeratothyasidesWL09
              |         |--T. sagariphorusWL09
              |         `--T. undulatusWL09
              |--CtenothyadidaeZF11
              |    |--Ctenothyas verrucosaWL09
              |    `--StellulathyasWL09
              |         |--S. lundbladiWL09
              |         `--S. magnificaWL09
              |--ZelandothyadidaeZF11
              |    |--Australiothyas Cook 1986H98 [Australiothyadidae, AustraliothyadinaeWL09]
              |    |    `--A. swaini Cook 1986H98
              |    `--Zelandothyas [Zelandothyadinae]WL09
              |         `--Z. diamphidaWL09
              `--Hydrodroma Koch 1837W91, RFF05 [Hydrodromidae]
                   |--H. americanaPW01
                   |--H. danuviensisMK91
                   |--H. despiciens (Müller 1776)RFF05 [=Hydrachna despiciensH98]
                   |    |--H. d. despiciensRFF05
                   |    |--H. d. brevirostris Lundblad 1941RFF05
                   |    |--H. d. clavipes Lundblad 1953RFF05
                   |    |--H. d. crassiseta Viets 1954RFF05
                   |    |--H. d. longiseta Viets 1954RFF05
                   |    |--H. d. macronyx Viets 1954RFF05
                   |    |--H. d. micronyx Viets 1954RFF05
                   |    `--H. d. pilosaMK91
                   |--H. monticola (Piersig 1906) [=Diplodontis despiciens var. monticolus]H98
                   |--H. peregrina (Koenike 1905)RFF05
                   |    |--H. p. peregrinaRFF05
                   |    `--H. p. robusta Viets 1954RFF05
                   |--H. rheophila Cook 1967S86b
                   |--H. stalagmophila Lundblad 1941RFF05
                   |--H. torrenticolaS86b
                   `--H. ungulata Lundblad 1941RFF05

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[DPD16] Dabert, M., H. Proctor & J. Dabert. 2016. Higher-level molecular phylogeny of the water mites (Acariformes: Prostigmata: Parasitengonina: Hydrachnidiae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 101: 75–90.

[G49] Grandjean, F. 1949. Remarques sur l’évolution numérique des papilles génitales et de l’organe de Claparède chez les hydracariens. Bulletin du Muséum, 2e série 21 (1): 75–82.

[H98] Halliday, R. B. 1998. Mites of Australia: A checklist and bibliography. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood.

[MK91] Meyer, E., & K. Kabbe. 1991. Pigmentation in water mites of the general Limnochares Latr. and Hydrodroma Koch (Hydrachnidia). In: Schuster, R., & P. W. Murphy (eds) The Acari: Reproduction, development and life-history strategies pp. 379–391. Chapman & Hall: London.

[PW01] Proctor, H., & K. Wilkinson. 2001. Coercion and deceit: water mites (Acari: Hydracarina) and the study of intersexual conflict. In: Halliday, R. B., D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff (eds) Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress pp. 155–169. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[RFF05] Rosso de Ferradás, B., & H. R. Fernández. 2005. Elenco y biogeografía de los ácaros acuáticos (Acari, Parasitengona, Hydrachnidia) de Sudamérica. Graellsia 61 (2): 181–224.

[S86a] Schwoerbel, J. 1986a. Acari: Stygothrombiidae und Thrombidiidae. In: Botosaneanu, L. (ed.) Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) pp. 648–651. E. J. Brill/Dr W. Backhuys: Leiden.

[S86b] Schwoerbel, J. 1986b. Acari: “Hydrachnellae”. In: Botosaneanu, L. (ed.) Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) pp. 652–696. E. J. Brill/Dr W. Backhuys: Leiden.

[S99] Smith, B. P. 1999. Larval Hydrachnidia and their hosts: biological inference and population structure. In: Needham, G. R., R. Mitchell, D. J. Horn & W. C. Welbourn (eds) Acarology IX vol. 2. Symposia pp. 139–143. Ohio Biological Survey: Columbus (Ohio).

[WL09] Walter, D. E., E. E. Lindquist, I. M. Smith, D. R. Cook & G. W. Krantz. 2009. Order Trombidiformes. In: Krantz, G. W., & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology 3rd ed. pp. 233–420. Texas Tech University Press.

[W91] Wohltmann, A. 1991. Nutrition and respiratory rate of water mites (Actinedida: Hydrachnidia) from a phylogenetic point of view. In: Dusbábek, F., & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 2 pp. 543–548. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[W01] Wohltmann, A. 2001. Closely related species of Parasitengonae (Acari: Prostigmata) inhabiting the same areas: features facilitating coexistence. In: Halliday, R. B., D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff (eds) Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress pp. 121–135. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[WWO01] Wohltmann, A., H. Witte & R. Olomski. 2001. Organismal patterns causing high potential for adaptive radiation in Parasitengonae (Acari: Prostigmata). In: Halliday, R. B., D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff (eds) Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress pp. 83–99. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[ZF11] Zhang, Z.-Q., Q.-H. Fan, V. Pesic, H. Smit, A. V. Bochkov, A. A. Khaustov, A. Baker, A. Wohltmann, T. Wen, J. W. Amrine, P. Beron, J. Lin, G. Gabryś & R. Husband. 2011. Order Trombidiformes Reuter, 1909. In: Zhang, Z.-Q. (ed.) Animal biodiversity: an outline of higher-level classification and survey of taxonomic richness. Zootaxa 3148: 129–138.

Leave a comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *