Hygrobatidae

Holotype of Notohygrobates kathrynae, copyright Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa.

Belongs within: Hygrobatoidea.
Contains: DiamphidaxonaAtractidellaAustraliobatesBrevaturus, Corticacarus, Dubiobates, Hygrobatella, Aspidiobates, Hygrobates, Atractides.

The Hygrobatidae are a diverse family of water mites, most of which are relatively soft-bodied though dorsal or ventral platelets may be present. Some species of the genera Hygrobates and Atractides are among the dominant water mites in flowing waters in the Northern Hemisphere. Larvae, where known, are parasites of Chironomidae (Walter et al. 2009). Division of the Hygrobatidae into subfamilies has been contentious and many authors have eschewed such a division for this family; one potential subfamily, the Rhynchaturinae, has been recognised for a group of species that commonly have the dorsal plate sculpted and divided.

Characters (from Walter et al. 2009): Adults usually soft-bodied, though a few scattered dorsal or ventral platelets may be present; if complete dorsal and ventral shields present (usually only in male), then with downturned seta on tibia I; venter with suture lines between coxal plates II-III complete; pair of glandularia present on coxal plates IV. Larvae with cheliceral bases fused; coxal plates I-III on each side all fused; one pair of urstigmata borne distally between coxal plates I-II; legs with five movable segments.

Hygrobatidae
    |--RhynchaturinaeRFF05
    |    |--Andesobates Smit 2002RFF05
    |    |    `--A. longipalpis Smit 2002RFF05
    |    |--Szalayella Lundblad 1953RFF05
    |    |    |--S. incisa Lundblad 1953RFF05
    |    |    `--S. lundbladi Cook 1980RFF05
    |    `--Rhynchaturus Besch 1964RFF05
    |         |--R. beschi Cook 1988RFF05
    |         |--R. cautinensis Cook 1988RFF05
    |         |--R. circularis Cook 1988RFF05
    |         |--R. hexaporus Besch 1964RFF05
    |         |--R. octoporus Schwoerbel 1986RFF05
    |         |--R. proyectus Cook 1988RFF05
    |         `--R. tricornis Cook 1988RFF05
    `--HygrobatinaeRFF05
         |  i. s.: DiamphidaxonaRFF05
         |         AtractidellaRFF05
         |         AustraliobatesRFF05
         |         BrevaturusRFF05
         |         CorticacarusRFF05
         |         DubiobatesRFF05
         |         HygrobatellaRFF05
         |         AspidiobatesRFF05
         |         Zelandobates Hopkins 1966S86
         |           |--Z. crinitus Hopkins 1966SL71
         |           `--Z. imamurai Schwoerbel 1984S86
         |         Aciculacarus Cook 1983S86
         |           `--A. amilis Cook 1983S86
         |         Hopkinsobates Cook 1983S86
         |           `--H. suzannae Cook 1983S86
         |         Notohygrobates Cook 1983S86
         |           `--N. kathrynae Cook 1983S86
         |         Camposea Schwoerbel 1986RFF05
         |           `--C. phreaticola Schwoerbel 1986RFF05
         |         Australiobatella Lundblad 1953RFF05
         |           `--A. vietsi Lundblad 1953RFF05
         |         Callumobates Cook 1988RFF05
         |           `--C. kurtvietsi Cook 1988RFF05
         |         Crenohygrobates Lundblad 1938RFF05
         |           `--C. multiporus Lundblad 1938RFF05
         |         Dodecabates Viets 1926RFF05
         |           `--D. dodecaporus (Nordenskiöld 1904)RFF05
         |         Eocorticacarus Besch 1964RFF05
         |           `--E. siolii Besch 1964RFF05
         |         Kyphohygrobatella Lundblad 1936RFF05
         |           `--K. serratipalpis Lundblad 1936RFF05
         |         Kyphohygrobates Viets 1935RFF05
         |           `--K. verrucifer (Daday 1905)RFF05
         |         Mapuchacarus Besch 1964RFF05
         |           `--M. condiscipulorum Besch 1964RFF05
         |         Motasia Lundblad 1953RFF05
         |           `--M. placoderma Lundblad 1953RFF05
         |         Neocorticacarus Lundblad 1953RFF05
         |           `--N. validipalpis Lundblad 1953RFF05
         |         Osornobates Cook 1988RFF05
         |           `--O. gennadus Cook 1988RFF05
         |         Polyhygrobatella Lundblad 1953RFF05
         |           `--P. polypora (Lundblad 1953)RFF05
         |         Stylohygrobates Viets 1935RFF05
         |           `--S. longipalpis Viets 1935RFF05
         |         Thoracohygrobates Lundblad 1936RFF05
         |           `--T. cancellatus Lundblad 1936RFF05
         |         Actinacarus Lundblad 1953RFF05
         |           |--A. affinis Lundblad 1953RFF05
         |           `--A. cardioporus Lundblad 1953RFF05
         |         Decussobates Cook 1988RFF05
         |           |--D. angustus Cook 1988RFF05
         |           `--D. planus Cook 1988RFF05
         |         Megapella Lundblad 1936RFF05
         |           |--M. flabellum (Lundblad 1941)RFF05
         |           `--M. longimaxillaris Lundblad 1936RFF05
         |         Paraschizobates Lundblad 1937RFF05
         |           |--P. columbianus (Lundblad 1953)RFF05
         |           `--P. megapoides Lundblad 1937RFF05
         |         Subcorticacarus Lundblad 1937RFF05
         |           |--S. digitatus Lundblad 1937RFF05
         |           `--S. trispinosus Lundblad 1942RFF05
         |         Zabobates Cook 1988RFF05
         |           |--Z. alphus Cook 1988RFF05
         |           |--Z. facetus Cook 1988RFF05
         |           `--Z. gledhilli Cook 1988RFF05
         |         Schizobates Thor 1927RFF05
         |           |--S. clanopus Cook 1988RFF05
         |           |--S. critus Cook 1988RFF05
         |           |--S. disjunctus (Walter 1925)RFF05
         |           `--S. similis Cook 1988RFF05
         |         Tetrahygrobatella Lundblad 1953RFF05
         |           |--T. argentinensis Cook 1980RFF05
         |           |--T. bovala Cook 1980RFF05
         |           |--T. chilensis (Besch 1964)RFF05
         |           |--T. dictyoderma (Lundblad 1953)RFF05
         |           `--T. longipalpis Cook 1980RFF05
         |--HygrobatesS-TK22
         `--+--AtractidesS-TK22
            `--Coaustraliobates Cook 1974S-TK22, H98
                 |--C. cortipes Cook 1986H98
                 |--C. longipalpis (Lundblad 1941) [=Australiobates longipalpis]H98
                 `--C. minor (Lundblad 1947) [=Australiobates longipalpis var. minor]H98
Hygrobatidae incertae sedis:
  Caenobates Viets 1978H98
    |--C. acheronius Viets 1978H98
    `--C. lundbladi Cook 1986H98
  Dropursa Cook 1986H98
    |--D. babinda Cook 1986H98
    |--D. boultoni Cook 1986H98
    `--D. harveyi Cook 1986H98
  Gondwanabates Imamura 1984H98
    |--G. bavinus Cook 1986H98
    |--G. bodivus Cook 1986H98
    |--G. crassipes Cook 1986H98
    |--G. curvipalpis Cook 1986H98
    |--G. dalvotus Cook 1986H98
    |--G. gembus Cook 1986H98
    |--G. hopkinsi Imamura 1984H98
    |--G. imamurai Cook 1986H98
    `--G. vietsi (Imamura 1984) [=Aspidiobates vietsi]H98
  Rhynchaustrobates Cook 1986H98
    |--R. bandus Cook 1986H98
    |--R. dividus Cook 1986H98
    |--R. geometricus Cook 1986H98
    |--R. projectus Cook 1986H98
    `--R. tasmanicus Cook 1986H98
  Kallimobates Viets 1978H98
    |--K. australicus Viets 1978H98
    |--K. cooki Smit 1992H98
    `--K. vietsi Cook 1986H98
  ProcorticacarusP07
    |--P. angulicoxalisG01
    |--P. hirsutusG01
    `--P. togalusG01
  DockovdiaWL09
    |--D. coolearumWL09
    `--D. oruensisWL09
  Aspidiobatella Cook 1986H98
    `--A. smola Cook 1986H98
  Australorivacarus Viets 1978H98
    |--A. multiscutatus Viets 1978H98
    |--A. nudipes Harvey 1989H98
    `--A. secipes Harvey 1989H98
  Cookabates Harvey 1988H98
    `--C. inermis Harvey 1988H98
  Declinobates Viets 1984H98
    `--D. longmorei Viets 1984H98
  Groonabates Cook 1986H98
    `--G. stanopus Cook 1986H98
  Tasmanobates Cook 1986H98
    `--T. scutatus Cook 1986H98
  Tobelobates Cook 1986H98
    `--T. confusus Cook 1986H98

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[G01] Growns, J. E. 2001. Aquatic mites as bioindicators, with an Australian example. In: Halliday, R. B., D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff (eds) Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress pp. 136–142. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[H98] Halliday, R. B. 1998. Mites of Australia: A checklist and bibliography. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood.

[P07] Proctor, H. C. 2007. Aquatic mites in assessments of stream invertebrate diversity. In: Morales-Malacara, J. B., V. M. Behan-Pelletier, E. Ueckermann, T. M. Pérez, E. G. Estrada-Venegas & M. Badii (eds) Acarology XI: Proceedings of the International Congress pp. 105–117. Instituto de Biología and Faculdad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Sociedad Latinoamericana de Acarología: México.

[RFF05] Rosso de Ferradás, B., & H. R. Fernández. 2005. Elenco y biogeografía de los ácaros acuáticos (Acari, Parasitengona, Hydrachnidia) de Sudamérica. Graellsia 61 (2): 181–224.

[S86] Schwoerbel, J. 1986. Acari: “Hydrachnellae”. In: Botosaneanu, L. (ed.) Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) pp. 652–696. E. J. Brill/Dr W. Backhuys: Leiden.

[SL71] Spain, A. V., & M. Luxton. 1971. Catalog and bibliography of the Acari of the New Zealand subregion. Pacific Insects Monograph 25: 179–226.

[S-TK22] Szudarek-Trepto, N., A. Kaźmierski, A. Skoracka, M. Lewandowski & J. Dabert. 2022. Molecular phylogeny supports the monophyly of the mite supercohort Eupodides (Acariformes: Trombidiformes) and greatly coincides with traditional morphological definition of the taxon. Annales Zoologici 72 (4): 757–786.

[WL09] Walter, D. E., E. E. Lindquist, I. M. Smith, D. R. Cook & G. W. Krantz. 2009. Order Trombidiformes. In: Krantz, G. W., & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology 3rd ed. pp. 233–420. Texas Tech University Press.

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