Ceratophysella denticulata, copyright Scott Justis.

Belongs within: Collembola.
Contains: Hypogastrura (Hypogastrura).

The Hypogastruridae are a group of elongate springtails with a granular, ridged molar plate on the mandible but lacking pseudocelli. The body is usually pigmented and ocelli are usually present, as is the furca; the antenna 3 organ is simple, with only two or three rod-shaped sensilla and no papillae or sensorial bodies; and the postantennal organ, if present, is usually round or oval with a maximum of six vesicles (Greenslade 1991). The postantennal organ is absent in members of the genera Acherontiella and Xenylla. Acherontiella species are eyeless whereas Xenylla have four or five eyes each side (Christiansen & Bellinger 1980a).

<==Hypogastruridae [Hypogastrurinae]
    |--Gomphiocephalus Carpenter 1908W67
    |    `--G. hodgsoni Carpenter 1908 [=Gomphocephalus (l. c.) hodgsoni]W67
    |--Cosberella conatoa Wray 1963 (n. d.)CB81
    |--Knowltonella Wray 1958CB80a
    |    `--*K. idahoensis Wray 1958CB80a
    |--Stenogastrura Christiansen & Bellinger 1980CB80a
    |    `--*S. hiemalis Christiansen & Bellinger 1980CB80a
    |--Bonetogastrura Thibaud 1975CB80a
    |    `--*B. balazuci (Delamare 1951) [=Typhlogastrura balazuci]CB80a
    |--Tafallia Bonet 1947 [incl. Hoffia Scott 1961]CB80a
    |    |--*T. insularis Bonet 1947CB80a
    |    `--T. robusta (Scott 1961) [=*Hoffia robusta]CB80a
    |--Microgastrura Stach 1922CB80a
    |    |--*M. duodecimoculata Stach 1922CB80a
    |    `--M. minutissima (Mills 1934) [=Achorutes (Schoettella) minutissima]CB80a
    |--Mesachorutes Absolon 1900CB80a
    |    |--*M. (Mesachorutes) quadriocellata Absolon 1900CB80a
    |    `--M. (Denigastrura Stach 1949)CB80a
    |         |--M. (*D.) tetrophthalma (Denis 1928) [=Hypogastrura tetrophthalma]CB80a
    |         `--M. (D.) thomomys (Chamberlain 1943) [=Achorutes thomomys, Hypogastrura thomomys]CB80a
    |--Acherontiella Absolon 1913CB80a
    |    |  i. s.: A. prominentiaMC13
    |    |--A. (Acherontiella) [incl. Acherontiellina Salmon 1964]CB80a
    |    |    |--*A. (A.) onychiuriformis Absolon 1913CB80a
    |    |    |--A. (A.) epigeaCB80a
    |    |    `--A. (A.) sabina Bonet 1945 [=*Acherontiellina sabina]CB80a
    |    `--A. (Acherontides)CB80a
    |         |--A. (A.) atoyacensisCB80a
    |         `--A. (A.) potosinusCB80a
    |--Willemia Börner 1901CB80a
    |    |--*W. anophthalma Börner 1901CB80a
    |    |--W. biseta Christiansen & Bellinger 1980CB80a
    |    |--W. bulbosaCB80a
    |    |--W. denisi Mills 1932CB80a
    |    |--W. dubia Christiansen & Bellinger 1980CB80a
    |    |--W. intermedia Mills 1934CB80a
    |    |--W. persimilisCB80a
    |    |--W. similis Mills 1934CB80a
    |    `--W. vashtia Wray 1950CB80a
    |--Triacanthella Schäffer 1897 [incl. Clingmantha Wray 1963]CB80a
    |    |--*T. michaelseni Schäffer 1897CB80a
    |    |--T. alba Carpenter 1909W39
    |    |--T. biroi Stach 1924W39
    |    |--T. clavata [=Triacanthura clavata]W39
    |    |--T. copelandi (Wray 1963) [=*Clingmantha copelandi]CB80a
    |    |--T. inopinata Denis 1924W39
    |    |--T. perfecta Denis 1927W39
    |    |--T. rosea Wahlgren 1906W39
    |    `--T. violacea Womersley 1939W39
    |--Schaefferia Absolon 1900CB80a
    |    |  i. s.: S. coeca (Cassagnau 1959)TM86
    |    |         S. decemoculata (Stach 1939)DB21
    |    |         S. subterraneaV73
    |    |--S. (Schaefferia)CB80a
    |    |    |--*S. (S.) emucronata Absolon 1900CB80a
    |    |    |--S. (S.) cheoha Wray 1963CB80a
    |    |    |--S. (S.) duodecimocellataCB80a
    |    |    `--S. (S.) guerrerenseCB80a
    |    `--S. (Typhlogastrura Bonet 1930)CB80a
    |         |--S. (*T.) mendizabali (Bonet 1930) [=Hypogastrura (*T.) mendizabali]CB80a
    |         |--S. (T.) alabamensis (Thibaud 1975) [=Typhlogastrura alabamensis]CB80a
    |         |--S. (T.) christianseni (Thibaud 1975)CB80a
    |         `--S. (T.) variabilis Christiansen 1952CB80a
    |--Hypogastrura Bourlet 1839CB80a
    |    |  i. s.: H. antarctica Salmon 1962W67
    |    |         H. papillata Gisin 1949SL06
    |    |         H. pseudopurpurascens Womersley 1928W39
    |    |         H. purpurascensH44
    |    |         H. rufescensW39
    |    |         H. sahlbergiRD77
    |    |--H. (Hypogastrura)CB80a
    |    |--H. (Mitchellania Wray 1953) [incl. Cyclograna Yosii 1961, Spinifacies Scott 1963]CB80a
    |    |    |--H. (*M.) hermosa (Wray 1953) [=*Mitchellania hermosa]CB80a
    |    |    |--H. (M.) californica (Bacon 1914) [=Achorutes californica]CB80a
    |    |    |--H. (M.) gibbomucronata (Hammer 1953)CB80a
    |    |    |--H. (M.) hiawatha (Yosii 1962) [=Cyclograna hiawatha]CB80a
    |    |    |--H. (M.) horrida Yosii 1960CB80a
    |    |    |--H. (M.) loricata Yosii 1960CB80a
    |    |    |--*Spinifacies’ oregonensis Scott 1963CB80a
    |    |    |--H. (M.) virga Christiansen & Bellinger 1980CB80a
    |    |    `--H. (M.) vulgaris Yosii 1960 [=H. (*Cyclograna) vulgaris]CB80a
    |    `--H. (Schoettella Schäffer 1896)CB80a
    |         |--H. (*S.) ununguiculata (Tullberg 1869) [=Achorutes ununguiculatus]CB80a
    |         |--H. (S.) albamaculata Scott 1960CB80a
    |         |--H. (S.) banksi Maynard 1951CB80a [incl. Tullbergia neomexicana Scott 1961CB80b]
    |         |--H. (S.) glasgowi (Folsom 1916) [=Achorutes glasgowi; incl. A. magnoliana Wray 1952]CB80a
    |         |--‘Schoettella’ poppeiS00
    |         `--‘Schoettella’ subcrassaS00
    |--Xenylla Tullberg 1869CB80a
    |    |--*X. maritima Tullberg 1869CB80a
    |    |--X. acauda Gisin 1947CB80a
    |    |--X. californica Gama 1976CB80a
    |    |--X. canadensis Hammer 1953CB80a
    |    |--X. carolinensis Wray 1946CB80a
    |    |--X. christianseni Gama 1974CB80a
    |    |--X. collis Bacon 1914 (n. d.)CB80a
    |    |--X. duchesnea Wray 1958CB80a
    |    |--X. grisea Axelson 1900 [incl. X. gracilis Guthrie 1903]CB80a
    |    |--X. humicola (Fabricius 1780) [=Podura humicola; incl. X. baconae Folsom 1916]CB80a
    |    |--X. littoralis Womersley 1934W39
    |    |--X. louisiana Gama 1976CB80a
    |    |--X. mucronata Axelson 1903CB80a [incl. Achorutes speciosa Rainbow 1907W39]
    |    |--X. neomexicana Scott 1960 (n. d.)CB80a
    |    |--X. occidentalis Womersley 1934W39
    |    |--X. pallescens (Scott 1960) [=Xenyllodes pallescens; incl. Xenyllodes alpina Scott 1960]CB80a
    |    |--X. paludis Bacon 1914 (n. d.)CB80a
    |    |--X. proxima Denis 1931CB80a
    |    |--X. pseudomaritima James 1933CB80a
    |    |--X. simberloffi Gama 1974CB80a
    |    |--X. similataH83
    |    |--X. thibaudiH83
    |    |--X. welchi Folsom 1916CB80a
    |    |--X. wilsoni Gama 1974CB80a
    |    `--X. yucatanaMC13
    |--Biscoia Salmon 1962W67
    |    `--B. sudpolaris Salmon 1962W67
    `--Ceratophysella Börner 1932S07 [incl. Spinachorutes Scott 1962CB80a]
         |  i. s.: C. alachuensis Skarżyński 2007S07
         |         C. annae Babenko 1994S07
         |         C. caucasica Martynova 1964S07
         |         ‘Achorutes’ citri Bacon 1914 (n. d.)CB80a
         |         ‘Hypogastrura’ gravesi Wray 1971CB80a
         |         C. kennethi Skarżyński 2007S07
         |         C. kutyrevae Babenko 1994S07
         |         C. longispina (Tullberg 1876) [=Achorutes longispina, Hypogastrura (Ceratophysella) longispina]CB80a
         |         ‘Hypogastrura’ macrospinata Maynard 1951 (n. d.)CB80a
         |         ‘Achorutes’ marmorata Packard 1873 (n. d.)CB80a
         |         C. maya [=Hypogastrura (Ceratophysella) maya]CB80a
         |         C. orizabae [=Hypogastrura (Ceratophysella) orizabae]CB80a
         |         C. robustiseta Skarżyński & Smolis 2006S07
         |         ‘Achorutes’ scotica Carpenter & Evans 1899CB80a
         |         ‘Achorutes’ sigillata Uzel 1891CB80a
         |         C. stercoraria Stach 1963S07
         |         ‘Achorutes’ texensis Packard 1873 (n. d.)CB80a
         |         C. tolteca Yosii 1962S07 [=Hypogastrura (Ceratophysella) toltecaCB80a]
         |--C. armata groupCB80a
         |    |--*C. armata (Nicolet 1841)CB80a, SL06 (see below for synonymy)
         |    |--C. bengtssoni (Ågren 1904) [=Achorutes bengtssoni, Hypogastrura (Ceratophysella) bengtssoni]CB80a
         |    |--C. brevisensillata Yosii 1961 [=Hypogastrura (Ceratophysella) brevisensillata]CB80a
         |    |--C. glancei (Hammer 1953) [=Hypogastrura (Ceratophysella) glancei]CB80a
         |    |--C. jondavi (Wray 1946) [=Achorutes jondavi, Hypogastrura (Ceratophysella) jondavi]CB80a
         |    `--C. pseudarmata (Folsom 1916) [=Hypogastrura (Ceratophysella) pseudarmata]CB80a
         |--C. boletivora groupCB80a
         |    |--C. biloba (Christiansen & Bellinger 1980) [=Hypogastrura (Ceratophysella) biloba]CB80a
         |    |--C. boletivora (Packard 1873) [=Achorutes boletivorus, Hypogastrura (Ceratophysella) boletivora]CB80a
         |    |--C. communis (Folsom 1897) [=Achorutes communis, Hypogastrura (Ceratophysella) communis]CB80a
         |    `--C. pratorum (Packard 1873) [=Achorutes pratorum, Hypogastrura (Ceratophysella) pratorum]CB80a
         |--C. densornata (Maynard 1951) [=Hypogastrura (Ceratophysella) densornata]CB80a
         |--C. denticulata groupCB80a
         |    |--C. brevis (Christiansen & Bellinger 1980) [=Hypogastrura (Ceratophysella) brevis]CB80a
         |    |--C. denticulata (Bagnall 1941)CB80a (see below for synonymy)
         |    |--C. gibbosa (Bagnall 1940) (see below for synonymy)CB80a
         |    |--C. granulifera Yosii 1962 [=Hypogastrura (Ceratophysella) granulifera]CB80a
         |    |--C. lucifuga (Packard 1888) [=Achorutes lucifuga, Hypogastrura (Ceratophysella) lucifuga]CB80a
         |    |--C. pecki (Christiansen & Bellinger 1980) [=Hypogastrura (Ceratophysella) pecki]CB80a
         |    |--C. scotti Yosii 1962 [=Hypogastrura (Ceratophysella) scotti]CB80a
         |    `--C. succinea (Gisin 1949) [=Hypogastrura (Ceratophysella) succinea]CB80a
         `--C. maheuxi groupCB80a
              |--C. guthriei (Folsom 1916) [=Achorutes guthriei, Hypogastrura (Ceratophysella) guthriei]CB80a
              |--C. krafti (Scott 1962) [=*Spinachorutes krafti, Hypogastrura (Ceratophysella) krafti]CB80a
              `--C. maheuxi (Butler 1966) [=Hypogastrura (Ceratophysella) maheuxi]CB80a

*Ceratophysella armata (Nicolet 1841)CB80a, SL06 [=Podura armataCB80a, Achorutes armatusW39, Hypogastrura (*Ceratophysella) armataCB80a; incl. H. armata var. inermisW39, Achorutes armatus var. pallensS00]

Ceratophysella denticulata (Bagnall 1941)CB80a [=Achorutes denticulataCB80a, Hypogastrura (Ceratophysella) denticulataG91; incl. H. engadinensis Gisin 1949CB80a, H. exilis Yosii 1956CB80a]

Ceratophysella gibbosa (Bagnall 1940) [=Achorutes gibbosa, Hypogastrura (Ceratophysella) gibbosa; incl. H. azteca Yosii 1962]CB80a

*Type species of generic name indicated


[CB80a] Christiansen, K., & P. Bellinger. 1980a. The Collembola of North America north of the Rio Grande: A taxonomic analysis vol. 1. Introduction; general; families Poduridae and Hypogastruridae. Grinnell College: Grinnell (Iowa).

[CB80b] Christiansen, K., & P. Bellinger. 1980b. The Collembola of North America north of the Rio Grande: A taxonomic analysis vol. 2. Families Onychiuridae and Isotomidae. Grinnell College: Grinnell (Iowa).

[CB81] Christiansen, K., & P. Bellinger. 1981. The Collembola of North America north of the Rio Grande: A taxonomic analysis vol. 4. Families Neelidae and Sminthuridae; glossary; bibliography; index. Grinnell College: Grinnell (Iowa).

[DB21] Derkarabetian, S., C. M. Baker, M. Hedin, C. E. Prieto & G. Giribet. 2021. Phylogenomic re-evaluation of Triaenonychoidea (Opiliones: Laniatores), and systematics of Triaenonychidae, including new families, genera and species. Invertebrate Systematics 35: 133–157.

[G91] Greenslade, P. J. 1991. Collembola (springtails). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers vol. 1 pp. 252–264. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[H83] Hammen, L. van der. 1983. Contribution to the knowledge of the soil-fauna of New Guinea. Zoologische Verhandelingen 206: 1–36.

[H44] Hammer, M. 1944. Studies on the oribatids and collemboles of Greenland. Meddelelser om Grønland 141 (3): 1–210.

[MC13] Majer, J. D., S. K. Callan, K. Edwards, N. R. Gunawardene & C. K. Taylor. 2013. Baseline survey of the terrestrial invertebrate fauna of Barrow Island. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 83: 13–112.

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms’ General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

[S00] Schäffer, C. 1900. Ueber württembergische Collembola. Jahreshefte des Vereins für vaterländische Naturkunde in Württemberg 56: 245–280, pl. 2.

[SL06] Schulz, H.-J., & P. Lymberakis. 2006. First contribution to the knowledge of the Collembola fauna of the White Mountains (Lefká Óri) in west Crete (Insecta, Collembola, Isotomidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 86 (2): 229–234.

[S07] Skarżyński, D. 2007. Two new species and a new record of the genus Ceratophysella Börner 1932 from North America (Insecta, Collembola, Hypogastruridae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 87 (2): 137–142.

[TM86] Thibaud, J.-M., & Z. Massoud. 1986. Insecta: Collembola. In: Botosaneanu, L. (ed.) Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) pp. 616–617. E. J. Brill/Dr W. Backhuys: Leiden.

[V73] Vuilleumier, F. 1973. Insular biogeography in continental regions. II. Cave faunas from Tessin, southern Switzerland. Systematic Zoology 22 (1): 64–76.

[W67] Wise, K. A. J. 1967. Collembola (springtails). Antarctic Research Series 10: 123–148.

[W39] Womersley, H. 1939. Primitive Insects of South Australia: Silverfish, springtails, and their allies. South Australian Branch of the British Science Guild: Adelaide.

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