Ichneutinae

Cardiochiles nigriceps attacking a tobacco budworm Heliothis virescens, copyright Andrei Sourakov.

Belongs within: Ichneumonoidea.
Contains: Microgastrinae.

The Ichneutinae are a small group of braconids endoparasitic on larvae of Lepidoptera or Hymenoptera (Tenthredinoidea), characterised by the presence of an abrupt curve at the anterior end of forewing vein 1-M (Achterberg 1993). However, Achterberg (1993) suggested that Ichneutinae was paraphyletic to a number of other subfamilies. These include the Miracinae, Cardiochilinae and Microgastrinae, all endoparasites of larvale Lepidoptera, which share the complete absence of the occipital carina, and have the spiracles of the first metasomal tergite on the weakly sclerotised epipleuron. Cardiochilinae have a greater number of antennal segments (20–51) than members of the other two subfamilies and their maxillary palps have six rather than five segments. Miracinae have antennae with fourteen segments, the notum of the first metasomal tergite narrowed medially and posteriorly, and lack a scutellar sulcus (Achterberg 1993).

<==IchneutinaeA93
    |  i. s.: Anaprixia Mason 1991A93
    |--Oligoneurus [Muesebeckiini]A93
    |    `--O. concolorA93
    `--+--Ichneutes Nees 1816HP-W05 [IchneutiniA93]
       |    |--I. brevisA93
       |    `--I. reunitorA93
       `--+--Proterops [Proteropinae]A93
          |    `--P. nigripennisA93
          `--+--NeoneurinaeA93
             |    |--Neoneurus auctusA93
             |    `--Elasmosoma berolinenseA93
             `--+--MiracinaeA93
                |    |--Centistidea ectoedemiaeA93
                |    `--MiraxA93
                |         |--M. insularis Muesebeck 1937M37
                |         |--M. leucopterae Wilkinson 1936M37
                |         `--M. texanaM37
                `--+--+--Khoikhoia [Khoikhoiinae]A93
                   |  |    `--K. lissionA93
                   |  `--CardiochilinaeA93
                   |       |--Pseudcardiochiles abnormipesA93
                   |       |--BohayellaDW96
                   |       |--RetusigasterDW96
                   |       |--BrevicardiochilesDW96
                   |       |--ToxoneuronDW96
                   |       |--Hansonia Dangerfield in Dangerfield, Whitfield et al. 1996DW96
                   |       |    `--*H. chavarriai Dangerfield in Dangerfield, Whitfield et al. 1996DW96
                   |       `--CardiochilesA93
                   |            |--C. fumipennis Szépligeti in Mocsáry & Szépligeti 1901MS01
                   |            |--C. nigricepsA71
                   |            |--C. punctatusA93
                   |            `--C. saltator [incl. C. saltator var. brachialis]MS01
                   `--MicrogastrinaeA93

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[A93] Achterberg, C. van. 1993. Illustrated key to the subfamilies of the Braconidae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonoidea). Zoologische Verhandelingen 283: 1–189.

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[DW96] Dangerfield, P. C., J. B. Whitfield, M. J. Sharkey, D. H. Janzen & I. Mercado. 1996. Hansonia, a new genus of cardiochiline Braconidae (Hymenoptera) from Costa Rica, with notes on its biology. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 98 (3): 592–596.

[HP-W05] Heitland, W., & H. Pschorn-Walcher. 2005. Biology and parasitoids of the peculiar alder sawfly, Platycampus luridiventris (Fallen) (Insecta, Hymenoptera, Tenthredinidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 85 (2): 215–231.

[MS01] Mocsáry, A., & V. Szépligeti. 1901. Hymenopterák [Hymenopteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 121–169. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[M37] Muesebeck, C. F. W. 1937. A new West Indian species of Mirax Haliday parasitic on the coffee leaf-miner (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 39 (6): 139–141.

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