Icteridae

Yellow-hooded blackbird Chrysomus icterocephalus bogotensis, copyright Nick Athanas.

Belongs within: Emberizoidea.
Contains: Sturnella, Cacicus, Icterus, Agelaius, Molothrus, Quiscalus, Agelasticus.

The Icteridae, sometimes referred to as New World Orioles or New World blackbirds, are a family of small to large passerine birds found in North and South America. Icterids have pointed bills and generally dark, often glossy plumage, often also with brightly-coloured patches (Internet Bird Collection). Recent phylogenetic studies have lead some authors to include the yellow-breasted chat Icteria virens, a warbler-like bird found over much of North America, as a basal member of this family.

Icteridae [Icterinae, Icterini]
    |--Icteria Vieillot 1808OF19, B94 [Icteriidae]
    |    |--I. virensOF19
    |    `--I. viridis [=Muscicapa viridis, Pipra viridis]J23
    `--+--+--SturnellaJT12
       |  `--+--Xanthocephalus Bonaparte 1850JT12, F11
       |     |    `--X. xanthocephalus (Bonaparte 1826) (see below for synonymy)S05
       |     `--Dolichonyx Swainson 1827JT12, B94 [Dolichonychinae]
       |          `--D. oryzivorus (Linnaeus 1758) [=Fringilla oryzivora]F11
       `--+--CacicusJT12
          `--+--IcterusJT12
             `--+--Amblycercus Cabanis 1851JT12, F11
                |    `--A. holosericeus (Deppe 1830) [=Sturnus holosericeus]F11
                |         |--A. h. holosericeusF11
                |         |--A. h. australis Chapman 1919F11
                |         `--A. h. flavirostris Chapman 1915F11
                `--+--Nesopsar Sclater 1859BKB15, F11
                   |    `--N. nigerrimus (Osburn 1859) [=Icterus nigerrimus]F11
                   `--+--Dives Cassin 1867BKB15, F11 [incl. Ptiloxena Chapman 1892F11]
                      |    |--D. atroviolaceus (d’Orbigny 1839)JT12, F11 [=Quiscalus atroviolaceusF11, Ptiloxena atroviolaceaF11]
                      |    |--D. dives (Deppe 1830) [=Icterus dives]F11
                      |    `--D. warszewiczi (Cabanis 1861) [=Lampropsar warszewiczi]F11
                      |         |--D. w. warszewicziF11
                      |         `--D. kalinowskii Berlepsch & Stolzmann 1892F11
                      `--+--AgelaiusBKB15
                         `--+--MolothrusBKB15
                            `--+--+--QuiscalusBKB15
                               |  `--Euphagus Cassin 1867JT12, F11
                               |       |--E. carolinus (Statius Müller 1776)F11 (see below for synonymy)
                               |       |    |--E. c. carolinusF11
                               |       |    `--E. c. nigrans Burleigh & Peters 1948F11
                               |       |--E. cyanocephalus (Wagler 1829) [=Psarocolius cyanocephalus]F11
                               |       `--E. magnirostrisFP64
                               `--+--Macroagelaius Cassin 1866BKB15, F11
                                  |    `--M. subalaris (Boissonneau 1840) [=Quiscalus subalaris]F11
                                  `--+--+--‘Macroagelaius’ imthurni (Sclater 1881)BKB15, F11 [=Agelaeus imthurniF11]
                                     |  `--+--Gymnomystax Reichenbach 1850BKB15, F11
                                     |     |    |--G. melanicterusSS66
                                     |     |    `--G. mexicanus (Linnaeus 1766) [=Oriolus mexicanus]F11
                                     |     `--+--Hypopyrrhus Bonaparte 1850JT12, F11
                                     |        |    `--H. pyrohypogaster (de Tarragon 1847) [=Cassicus pyrohypogaster]F11
                                     |        `--Lampropsar Cabanis 1847BKB15, F11
                                     |             `--L. tanagrinus (Spix 1824) [=Icterus tanagrinus]F11
                                     |                  |--L. t. tanagrinusF11
                                     |                  |--L. t. boliviensis Gyldenstolpe 1941F11
                                     |                  |--L. t. guianensis Cabanis 1848F11
                                     |                  |--L. t. macropterus Gyldenstolpe 1945F11
                                     |                  `--L. t. violaceus Hellmayr 1906F11
                                     `--+--+--Amblyramphus Leach 1814BKB15, F11
                                        |  |    `--A. holosericeus (Scopoli 1786) [=Xanthornus holosericeus]F11
                                        |  `--Curaeus Sclater 1862JT12, F11
                                        |       |--C. curaeus (Molina 1782) (see below for synonymy)F11
                                        |       |    |--C. c. curaeusF11
                                        |       |    `--C. c. reynoldsi Sclater 1939F11
                                        |       `--C. forbesi (Sclater 1886) [=Agelaius forbesi, Gnorimopsar forbesi]F11
                                        `--+--AgelasticusBKB15
                                           `--+--+--Gnorimopsar Richmond 1908BKB15, F11
                                              |  |    `--G. chopi (Vieillot 1819) [=Agelaius chopi]F11
                                              |  |         |--G. c. chopiF11
                                              |  |         |--G. c megistus (Leverkühn 1889)F11
                                              |  |         `--G. c. sulcirostris (Spix 1824)F11
                                              |  `--Chrysomus Swainson 1837BKB15, F11
                                              |       |--C. icterocephalus (Linnaeus 1766)F11 (see below for synonymy)
                                              |       |    |--C. i. icterocephalusF11
                                              |       |    `--C. i. bogotensis (Chapman 1914)F11
                                              |       `--C. ruficapillus (Vieillot 1819) [=Agelaius ruficapillus]F11
                                              |            |--C. r. ruficapillusF11
                                              |            `--C. r. frontalis (Vieillot 1819)F11
                                              `--+--+--Xanthopsar Ridgway 1901BKB15, F11
                                                 |  |    `--X. flavus (Gmelin 1788) (see below for synonymy)F11
                                                 |  `--Pseudoleistes Sclater 1862JT12, F11
                                                 |       |--P. guirahuro (Vieillot 1819) [=Agelaius guirahuro]F11
                                                 |       `--P. virescens (Vieillot 1819) [=Agelaius virescens]F11
                                                 `--+--Oreopsar Sclater 1939JT12, F11
                                                    |    `--O. bolivianus Sclater 1939 [incl. Agelaioides oreopsar]F11
                                                    `--Agelaioides Cassin 1866BKB15, F11
                                                         |--A. badius (Vieillot 1819) [=Agelaius badius, Molothrus badius]F11
                                                         |    |--A. b. badiusF11
                                                         |    `--A. b. bolivianus (Hellmayr 1917)F11
                                                         `--A. fringillarius (Spix 1824) [=Icterus fringillarius]F11
Icteridae incertae sedis:
  Tangavius armentiFP64
  Cassiculus Swainson 1827F11
    `--C. solitarius [incl. C. nigerrimus]SS66
  OstinopsSS66
    |--O. angustifronsSS66
    |--O. atrovirensSS66
    |--O. cristatusSS66
    `--O. yuracariumSS66
  Xanthosomus icterocephalusSS66
  Megaquiscalus majorS18
    |--M. m. majorS18
    `--M. m. macrourusS18
  Cremaster tytthus Brodkorb 1959U93
  PandanarisF11
    |--P. convexaF11
    `--P. floridana Brodkorb 1957U93
  Pyelorhamphus molothroidesF11
  ‘Colinus’ eatoni Shufeldt 1915U93
  Scolecophagus Swainson 1831S05

Chrysomus icterocephalus (Linnaeus 1766)F11 [=Oriolus icterocephalusF11, Agelaius icterocephalusF11, Zanthornus icterocephalusJ23]

Curaeus curaeus (Molina 1782) [=Turdus curaeus; incl. C. curaeus recurvirostris]F11

Euphagus carolinus (Statius Müller 1776)F11 [=Turdus carolinusF11, Scolecophagus carolinusS05; incl. S. ferrugineus Harting 1871S05]

Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus (Bonaparte 1826) [=Icterus xanthocephalus; incl. I. frenatus Reinhardt 1843, Xanthocephalus icterocephalus Newton 1875, Agelaeus perspicillatus Reinhardt 1861]S05

Xanthopsar flavus (Gmelin 1788) [=Oriolus flavus, Agelaius flavus; incl. Icterus xantholemus]F11

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[B94] Bock, W. J. 1994. History and nomenclature of avian family-group names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 222: 1–281.

[BKB15] Burleigh, J. G., R. T. Kimball & E. L. Braun. 2015. Building the avian tree of life using a large-scale, sparse supermatrix. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 53–63.

[FP64] Fisher, J., & R. T. Peterson. 1964. The World of Birds: A comprehensive guide to general ornithology. Macdonald: London.

[F11] Fraga, R. M. 2011. Family Icteridae (New World blackbirds). In: Hoyo, J. del, A. Elliott & D. A. Christie (eds) Handbook of the Birds of the World vol. 16. Tanagers to New World Blackbirds pp. 684–807. Lynx Edicions: Barcelona.

[J23] James, E. 1823. Account of an Expedition from Pittsburgh to the Rocky Mountains, performed in the years 1819 and ’20, by order of the Hon. J. C. Calhoun, sec’y of war: under the command of Major Stephen H. Long. From the notes of Major Long, Mr. T. Say, and other gentlemen of the exploring party vol. 1. H. C. Carey & I. Lea: Philadelphia.

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444–448.

[OF19] Oliveros, C. H., D. J. Field, D. T. Ksepka, F. K. Barker, A. Aleixo, M. J. Andersen, P. Alström, B. W. Benz, E. L. Braun, M. J. Braun, G. A. Bravo, R. T. Brumfield, R. T. Chesser, S. Claramunt, J. Cracraft, A. M. Cuervo, E. P. Derryberry, T. C. Glenn, M. G. Harvey, P. A. Hosner, L. Joseph, R. T. Kimball, A. L. Mack, C. M. Miskelly, A. T. Peterson, M. B. Robbins, F. H. Sheldon, L. F. Silveira, B. T. Smith, N. D. White, R. G. Moyle & B. C. Faircloth. 2019. Earth history and the passerine superradiation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 116 (16): 7916–7925.

[S05] Schalow, H. 1905. Die Vögel der Arktis. In: Römer, F., & F. Schaudinn (eds) Fauna Arctica. Eine Zusammenstellun der arktischen Tierformen, mit besonder Berücksichtigung des Spitzbergen-Gebietes auf Grund der Ergebnisse der Deutschen Expedition in das Nördliche Eismeer im Jahre 1898 vol. 4 pp. 79–288. Gustav Fischer: Jena.

[SS66] Sclater, P. L., & O. Salvin. 1866. Catalogue of birds collected by Mr. E. Bartlett on the River Uyacali, Eastern Peru, with notes and descriptions of new species. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 175–201.

[S18] Stone, W. 1918. Birds of the Panama Canal Zone, with special reference to a collection made by Mr. Lindsey L. Jewel. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 70: 239–280.

[U93] Unwin, D. M. 1993. Aves. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 717–737. Chapman & Hall: London.

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