Icterus

Male hooded oriole Icterus cucullatus, copyright Linda Tanner.

Belongs within: Icteridae.

Icterus, the New World orioles, is a genus of strikingly coloured birds found in North and South America. Members of this genus have a pointed bill and a long tail; males are black and yellow or orange with white markings, with females being duller.

<==Icterus Brisson 1760B94 [incl. BananivorusF11, PendulinusF11, Xanthornus Pallas 1769B94; Xanthorninae]
    |  i. s.: I. melanopsis (Wagler 1829) [=Psarocolius melanopsis]F11
    |         I. northropi Allen 1890F11
    |         I. portoricensis Bryant 1866 [=I. dominicensis var. portoricensis]F11
    |         I. pyrrhopterus (Vieillot 1819) [=Agelaius pyrrhopterus]F11
    |           |--I. p. pyrrhopterusF11
    |           |--I. p. periporphyrus (Bonaparte 1850)F11
    |           |--I. p. tibialis Swainson 1838F11
    |           `--I. p. valenciobuenoi von Ihering 1902F11
    |         I. thiliusF43
    |--+--+--I. parisorum Bonaparte 1838JF06, F11
    |  |  `--+--I. chrysater (Lesson 1844)JF06, F11 [=Xanthornus chrysaterF11]
    |  |     |    |--I. c. chrysaterF11
    |  |     |    |--I. c. giraudii Cassin 1848 [incl. I. c. hondae]F11
    |  |     |    `--I. c. mayensis van Rossem 1938F11
    |  |     `--I. graduacauda Lesson 1839JF06, F11
    |  |          |--I. g. graduacaudaF11
    |  |          |--I. g. audubonii Giraud 1841F11
    |  |          |--I. g. dickeyae van Rossem 1938 [incl. I. g. richardsoni]F11
    |  |          `--I. g. nayaritensis van Rossem 1938F11
    |  `--+--I. leucopteryx (Wagler 1827)JT12, F11 [=Psarocolius leucopteryxF11]
    |     |    |--I. l. leucopteryxF11
    |     |    |--I. l. bairdiF11
    |     |    `--I. l. lawrencii Cory 1887F11
    |     `--+--+--I. auratus Bonaparte 1850JT12, F11
    |        |  `--+--I. gularis (Wagler 1829)JF06, F11 [=Psarocolius gularisF11]
    |        |     |    |--I. g. gularis [incl. I. g. gigas, I. g. xerophilus]F11
    |        |     |    |--I. g. flavescens Phillips 1966F11
    |        |     |    `--I. g. mentalis Lesson 1831 [incl. I. g. tamaulipensis, I. g. troglodytes, I. g. yucatanensis]F11
    |        |     `--I. nigrogularis (Hahn 1819)JF06, F11 [=Xanthornus nigrogularisF11]
    |        |          |--I. n. nigrogularisF11
    |        |          |--I. n. curasoensis Ridgway 1884F11
    |        |          |--I. n. helioeides Clark 1902F11
    |        |          `--I. n. trinitatis Hartert 1913F11
    |        `--+--+--I. abeillei (Lesson 1839)JT12, F11 [=Xanthornus abeilleiF11, I. bullockii abeilleiR70]
    |           |  `--I. galbula (Linnaeus 1758)JT12, F11 [=Coracias galbulaF11]
    |           `--+--I. bullockii (Swainson 1827)JT12, F11 [=Xanthornus bullockiiF11, I. galbula bullockiiR70]
    |              |    |--I. b. bullockii [incl. I. b. eleutherus]F11
    |              |    `--I. b. parvus van Rossem 1945F11
    |              `--I. pustulatus (Wagler 1829)JT12, F11 (see below for synonymy)
    |                   |--I. p. pustulatusF11
    |                   |--I. p. alticola Miller & Griscom 1925 [incl. I. p. flammulatus]F11
    |                   |--I. p. formosus Lawrence 1872F11
    |                   |--I. p. graysonii Cassin 1867F11
    |                   |--I. p. maximus Griscom 1930F11
    |                   |--I. p. microstictus Griscom 1834F11
    |                   |--I. p. pustuloides van Rossem 1927F11
    |                   `--I. p. sclateri Cassin 1867 [incl. I. p. connectens]F11
    `--+--I. maculialatus Cassin 1848BKB15, F11
       `--+--+--I. mesomelas (Wagler 1829)BKB15, F11 [=Psarocolius mesomelasF11]
          |  |    |--I. m. mesomelasF11
          |  |    |--I. m. carrikeri Todd 1917F11
          |  |    |--I. m. salvinii Cassin 1867F11
          |  |    `--I. m. taczanowskii Ridgway 1901F11
          |  `--+--I. croconotus (Wagler 1829)BKB15, F11 [=Psarocolius croconotusF11]
          |     |    |--I. c. croconotusF11
          |     |    `--I. c. strictifrons Todd 1924 [incl. I. jamacaii paraguayae]F11
          |     |--+--I. graceannae Cassin 1867JF06, F11
          |     |  `--I. pectoralis (Wagler 1829)JF06, F11 [=Psarocolius pectoralisF11]
          |     |       |--I. p. pectoralisF11
          |     |       |--I. p. carolynae Dickerman 1981F11
          |     |       |--I. p. espinachi Ridgway 1882F11
          |     |       `--I. p. guttulatus Lafresnaye 1844F11
          |     `--+--I. icterus (Linnaeus 1766)JF06, F11 [=Oriolus icterusF11]
          |        |    |--I. i. icterusF11
          |        |    |--I. i. metae Phelps & Aveledo 1966F11
          |        |    `--I. i. ridgwayi (Hartert 1902)F11
          |        `--I. jamacaii (Gmelin 1788)JF06, F11 [=Oriolus jamacaiiF11, I. icterus jamacaiiL81]
          `--+--I. wagleri Sclater 1857JF06, F11
             |    |--I. w. wagleriF11
             |    `--I. w. castaneopectus Brewster 1888F11
             `--+--+--I. cucullatus Swainson 1827BKB15, F11
                |  |    |--I. c. cucullatusF11
                |  |    |--I. c. igneus Ridgway 1885 [incl. I. c. cozumelae, I. c. duplexus, I. c. masoni]F11
                |  |    |--I. c. nelsoni Ridgway 1885 [incl. I. c. restrictus]F11
                |  |    |--I. c. sennetti Ridgway 1901F11
                |  |    `--I. c. trochiloides Grinnell 1927F11
                |  `--+--I. prosthemelas (Strickland 1850)BKB15, F11 [=Xanthornus prosthemelasF11]
                |     |    |--I. p. prosthemelasF11
                |     |    `--I. p. praecox Phillips & Dickerman 1965F11
                |     `--+--I. fuertesi Chapman 1911BKB15, F11
                |        `--I. spurius (Linnaeus 1766)BKB15, F11 (see below for synonymy)
                `--+--I. laudabilis Sclater 1871BKB15, F11
                   `--+--I. oberi Lawrence 1880BKB15, F11
                      `--+--+--I. auricapillus Cassin 1848BKB15, F11
                         |  `--I. dominicensis (Linnaeus 1766)JT12, F11 [=Oriolus dominicensisF11]
                         `--+--I. bonana (Linnaeus 1766)BKB15, F11 [=Oriolus bonanaF11]
                            `--+--I. cayanensis (Linnaeus 1766)BKB15, F11 [=Oriolus cayanensisF11]
                               `--I. chrysocephalus (Linnaeus 1766)BKB15, F11 [=Oriolus chrysocephalusF11]

Icterus pustulatus (Wagler 1829)JT12, F11 [=Psarocolius pustulatusF11; incl. I. pustulatus dickermaniF11, I. pustulatus interiorF11, I. pustulatus yaegeriF11]

Icterus spurius (Linnaeus 1766)BKB15, F11 [=Oriolus spuriusF11, Zanthornus spuriusJ23; incl. I. spurius phillipsiF11]

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[B94] Bock, W. J. 1994. History and nomenclature of avian family-group names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 222: 1–281.

[BKB15] Burleigh, J. G., R. T. Kimball & E. L. Braun. 2015. Building the avian tree of life using a large-scale, sparse supermatrix. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 53–63.

[F11] Fraga, R. M. 2011. Family Icteridae (New World blackbirds). In: Hoyo, J. del, A. Elliott & D. A. Christie (eds) Handbook of the Birds of the World vol. 16. Tanagers to New World Blackbirds pp. 684–807. Lynx Edicions: Barcelona.

[F43] Fraser, L. 1843. On the collection of birds brought to England by Mr. Bridges. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 11: 108–121.

[J23] James, E. 1823. Account of an Expedition from Pittsburgh to the Rocky Mountains, performed in the years 1819 and ’20, by order of the Hon. J. C. Calhoun, sec’y of war: under the command of Major Stephen H. Long. From the notes of Major Long, Mr. T. Say, and other gentlemen of the exploring party vol. 1. H. C. Carey & I. Lea: Philadelphia.

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444–448.

[JF06] Jønsson, K. A., & J. Fjeldså. 2006. A phylogenetic supertree of oscine passerine birds. Zoologica Scripta 35: 149–186.

[L81] Long, J. L. 1981. Introduced Birds of the World: The worldwide history, distribution and influence of birds introduced to new environments. Reed: Sydney.

[R70] Rising, J. D. 1970. Morphological variation and evolution in some North American orioles. Systematic Zoology 19 (4): 315–351.

Leave a comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *