Iguania

 Fijian crested iguana Brachylophus vitiensis, photographed by Joseph Burgess.

Belongs within: Lepidosauria.
Contains: Chamaeleonidae, Agamidae, Callisaurus, Corytophaninae, Phrynosomatinae, Liolaemidae, Iguaninae, Leiosaurini, Tropiduridae, Anolis.

The Iguanidae are a family of lizards, the iguanas and their relatives, found primarily in the Americas with the genus Brachylophus found in Fiji. Many iguanids are primarily herbivorous.

<==Iguania [Iguanoidea, Pleurodonta, Polychrotidae]MH11
    |--Acrodonta [Chamaeleonoidea]LG07
    |    |--ChamaeleonidaeLG07
    |    |--AgamidaeLG07
    |    `--Xianglong Li, Gao et al. 2007LG07
    |         `--*X. zhaoi Li, Gao et al. 2007LG07
    `--Iguanidae [Tropidurinae]SVL03
         |  i. s.: Ophyoessoides aculeatusDS86
         |         Pristiguana brasiliensis Estes & Price 1973B93
         |         Streptosaurus mearnsiF71
         |         Ctenosaura pectinataGWN71
         |         Cophosaurus texanusLM-CM05
         |         Swainiguanoides milleriLBG12
         |         SuzaniwanaLBG12
         |         AnolbanolisLBG12
         |         TemujiniaLBG12
         |         ZapsosaurusLBG12
         |         Pariguana Longrich, Bhullar & Gauthier 2012LBG12
         |           `--*P. lancensis Longrich, Bhullar & Gauthier 2012LBG12
         |         ConolophusDS86
         |           |--C. pallidusUSDI77
         |           `--C. subcristatusRJ11
         |         HolbrookiaF71
         |           |--H. maculataF71
         |           `--H. texanaF71
         |         CycluraRFN02
         |           |--C. collei (Gray 1845)H81
         |           |--C. cornutaH81
         |           |    |--C. c. cornutaH81
         |           |    `--C. c. onchiopsis (Cope 1885) [incl. C. nigerrima Cope 1886]H81
         |           |--C. macleayiGWN71
         |           |--C. mattea Miller 1918H81
         |           |--C. nubilaWS02
         |           |--C. pinguisUSDI77
         |           `--C. portoricensis Barbour 1919H81
         |         CallisaurusF71
         |--Crotaphytinae [Crotaphytidae]SVL03
         |    |--Gambelia wislizeniiSVL03
         |    `--CrotaphytusMH11 [incl. Holmanisaurus Rossman 1993 (n. n.)SH96]
         |         |--C. collarisMH11
         |         |--C. oligocenicus Holman 1972SH96
         |         |--C. silusUSDI77
         |         `--C. wislizeniiW73
         `--+--HoplocercinaeSVL03
            |    |--EnyalioidesSVL03
            |    |    |--E. cofanorumDS86
            |    |    `--E. laticepsDS86
            |    `--+--Hoplocercus spinosusSVL03
            |       `--Morunasaurus annularisSVL03
            `--+--CorytophaninaeSVL03
               `--+--+--PhrynosomatinaeSVL03
                  |  `--LiolaemidaeSVL03
                  `--+--+--IguaninaeSVL03
                     |  `--+--LeiosauriniSVL03
                     |     `--OplurinaeSVL03
                     |          |--Chalarodon madagascarensisSVL03
                     |          `--OplurusSVL03
                     |               |--O. cuvieriSVL03
                     |               `--O. sebaeGWN71
                     `--+--+--TropiduridaeSVL03
                        |  `--PolychrusSVL03
                        |       |--P. acutirostrisSVL03
                        |       |--P. liogasterDS86
                        |       |--P. marmoratusDS86
                        |       `--P. pervianusSVL03
                        `--+--+--ChamaeleolisGS92
                           |  `--+--PhenacosaurusGS92
                           |     `--+--ChamaelinoropsGS92
                           |        `--AnolisSVL03
                           `--Leiocephalus [Leiocephalidae]SVL03
                                |  i. s.: L. eremitus Cope 1868H81
                                |         L. herminieri Dumeril & Bibron 1837H81
                                |         L. vittatusF15
                                |--L. carinatusSVL03
                                `--+--L. personatusSVL03
                                   `--L. schreibersiSVL03
Iguania incertae sedis:
  XiphocercusU57
  Amblyrhynchus cristatusVRC01
  Euposaurus [Euposauridae]B93
    |--E. cerinensis Lortet 1892B93
    |--E. lorteti Hoffstetter 1964B93
    `--E. thiollierei Lortet 1892B93
  Arretosaurus [Arretosauridae]B93
    `--A. ornatus Gilmore 1943B93
  Aciprion Cope 1873SH96
    `--A. formosum Cope 1873 [incl. A. majus Gilmore 1928]SH96
  Cypressaurus Holman 1972SH96
    `--C. hypsodontus Holman 1972SH96
  Paraphrynosoma Sullivan & Holman 1996SH96
    `--*P. greeni (Holman 1989) [=Phrynosoma greeni]SH96

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[B93] Benton, M. J. 1993. Reptilia. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 681–715. Chapman & Hall: London.

[DS86] Dixon, J. R., & P. Soini. 1986. The Reptiles of the Upper Amazon Basin, Iquitos Region, Peru. Milwaukee Public Museum: Milwaukee.

[F71] Ferguson, G. W. 1971. Variation and evolution of the push-up displays of the side-blotched lizard genus Uta (Iguanidae). Systematic Zoology 20 (1): 79–101.

[F15] Fowler, H. W. 1915. Cold-blooded vertebrates from Florida, the West Indies, Costa Rica, and eastern Brazil. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 67 (2): 244–269.

[GWN71] Gorman, G. C., A. C. Wilson & M. Nakanishi. 1971. A biochemical approach towards the study of reptilian phylogeny: evolution of serum albumin and lactic dehydrogenase. Systematic Zoology 20 (2): 167–185.

[GS92] Guyer, C., & J. M. Savage. 1992. Anole systematics revisited. Systematic Biology 41 (1): 89–110.

[H81] Honegger, R. E. 1981. List of amphibians and reptiles either known or thought to have become extinct since 1600. Biological Conservation 19: 141–158.

[LG07] Li, P.-P., K.-Q. Gao, L.-H. Hou & X. Xu. 2007. A gliding lizard from the Early Cretaceous of China. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 104 (13): 5507–5509.

[LM-CM05] Lindell, J., F. R. Méndez-de la Cruz & R. W. Murphy. 2005. Deep genealogical history without population differentiation: discordance between mtDNA and allozyme divergence in the zebra-tailed lizard (Callisaurus draconoides). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 36: 682–694.

[LBG12] Longrich, N. R., B.-A. S. Bhullar & J. A. Gauthier. 2012. Mass extinction of lizards and snakes at the Cretaceous–Paleogene boundary. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 109 (52): 21396–21401.

[MH11] Müller, J., C. A. Hipsley, J. J. Head, N. Kardjilov, A. Hilger, M. Wuttke & R. R. Reisz. 2011. Eocene lizard from Germany reveals amphisbaenian origins. Nature 473: 364–367.

[RFN02] Raxworthy, C. J., M. R. J. Forstner & R. A. Nussbaum. 2002. Chameleon radiation by oceanic dispersal. Nature 415: 784–787.

[RJ11] Rising, J. D., A. Jaramillo, J. L. Copete, P. G. Ryan & S. C. Madge. 2011. Family Emberizidae (buntings and New World sparrows). In: Hoyo, J. del, A. Elliott & D. A. Christie (eds) Handbook of the Birds of the World vol. 16. Tanagers to New World Blackbirds pp. 428–683. Lynx Edicions: Barcelona.

[SVL03] Schulte, J. A., II, J. P. Valladares & A. Larson. 2003. Phylogenetic relationships within Iguanidae inferred using molecular and morphological data and a phylogenetic taxonomy of iguanian lizards. Herpetologia 59 (3): 399–419.

[SH96] Sullivan, R. M., & J. A. Holman. 1996. Squamata. In: Prothero, D. R., & R. J. Emry (eds) The Terrestrial Eocene–Oligocene Transition in North America pp. 354–372. Cambridge University Press.

[U57] Underwood, G. 1957. On lizards of the family Pygopodidae. A contribution to the morphology and phylogeny of the Squamata. Journal of Morphology 100 (2): 207–268.

[USDI77] USDI (United States Department of the Interior). 1977. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants—republication of list of species. Federal Register 42: 36420–36431.

[VRC01] Vickaryous, M. K., A. P. Russell & P. J. Currie. 2001. Cranial ornamentation of ankylosaurs (Ornithischia: Thyreophora): reappraisal of developmental hypotheses. In: Carpenter, K. (ed.) 2001. The Armored Dinosaurs pp. 318–340. Indiana University Press.

[WS02] Walter, D. E., & M. Shaw. 2002. First record of the mite Hirstiella diolii Baker (Prostigmata: Pterygosomatidae) from Australia, with a review of mites found on Australian lizards. Australian Journal of Entomology 41: 30–34.

[W73] Woodruff, D. S. 1973. Natural hybridization and hybrid zones. Systematic Zoology 22 (3): 213–218.

Leave a comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *