Insidiatores

Sclerobunus nondimorphicus, copyright Marshal Hedin.

Belongs within: Opiliones.
Contains: Cladonychiidae, Metanonychus, Lomanella, Synthetonychia, Triaenonychidae.

The Travunioidea are a group of Holarctic laniatorean harvestmen characterised by male genitalia in which the expansive muscles tend to be restricted to the base of the truncus, often associated with a simplification of the glans (Derkarabetian et al. 2018).

<==InsidiatoresDL23
    |--Travunioidea [Travunoidea]DL23
    |    |--Travuniidae [Travuniinae]DS18
    |    |    |--Dinaria Roewer 1935KM07
    |    |    |    `--*D. vjetrenicae (Hadži 1932) [=Travunia vjetrenicae]KM07
    |    |    |--Trojanella Karaman 2005DS18
    |    |    |    `--T. serbica Karaman 2005KMS14
    |    |    |--Travunia Absolon 1920 [=Absolonia Roewer 1915 non Börner 1901, Abasola Strand 1928]KM07
    |    |    |    |--T. troglodytes (Roewer 1915)KMS14 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |    |    |--T. borisi (Hadži 1973)KMS14 [=Abasola borisiK07]
    |    |    |    |--T. hofferi (Šilhavý 1937)KMS14 [=Abasola hofferiKM07]
    |    |    |    `--T. jandai Kratochvíl 1937KMS14
    |    |    `--Paralola Kratochvil 1951M18
    |    |         `--*P. buresi Kratochvíl 1951M18
    |    `--+--+--Yuria Suzuki 1964DL23, KM07
    |       |  |    `--Y. pulcra Suzuki 1964KMS14
    |       |  |         |--Y. p. pulcraKMS14
    |       |  |         `--Y. p. briggsi Suzuki 1975KMS14
    |       |  `--CladonychiidaeDL23
    |       `--+--CryptomastridaeDS18
    |          |    |--Cryptomaster Briggs 1969UD05
    |          |    |    |--*C. leviathan Briggs 1969K03
    |          |    |    `--C. behemoth Starrett & Derkarabetian 2016DS18
    |          |    `--Speleomaster Briggs 1974DS18
    |          |         |--*S. lexi Briggs 1974K03
    |          |         `--S. pecki Briggs 1974KMS14
    |          `--Paranonychidae (see below for synonymy)DS18
    |               |--Paranonychus Briggs 1971DS18, K03
    |               |    |--*P. brunneus (Banks 1893)K03 [=Sclerobunus brunneusK03; incl. S. parvus Roewer 1931BH09]
    |               |    |--P. concolor Briggs 1971K03
    |               |    `--P. fuscus (Suzuki 1976) [=Mutsunonychus fuscus]DS18
    |               `--+--+--MetanonychusDS18
    |                  |  `--Sclerobunus Banks 1893DS18, K03 (see below for synonymy)
    |                  |       |  i. s.: S. jemez Derkarabetian & Hedin 2014KMS14
    |                  |       |--+--S. idahoensis Briggs 1971 [=S. robustus idahoensis]DH14
    |                  |       |  `--S. nondimorphicus Briggs 1971DH14
    |                  |       `--+--+--S. cavicolens (Banks 1905) (see below for synonymy)DH14
    |                  |          |  `--+--S. madhousensis (Briggs 1971) (see below for synonymy)DH14
    |                  |          |     `--S. ungulatus (Briggs 1971) [=Cyptobunus ungulatus]DH14
    |                  |          `--+--+--S. speoventus Derkarabetian & Hedin 2014DH14
    |                  |             |  `--S. steinmanni Derkarabetian & Hedin 2014DH14
    |                  |             `--+--*S. robustus (Packard 1877) (see below for synonymy)DH14
    |                  |                `--+--S. skywalkeri Derkarabetian & Hedin 2014DH14
    |                  |                   `--+--S. glorietus Briggs 1971 [=S. robustus glorietus]DH14
    |                  |                      `--S. klomax Derkarabetian & Hedin 2014DH14
    |                  `--+--+--Kaolinonychus Suzuki 1975DS18, S75
    |                     |  |    `--*K. coreanus (Suzuki 1966) [=Peltonychia coreana]S75
    |                     |  |         |--K. c. coreanusS75
    |                     |  |         `--K. c. longipes (Suzuki 1966) [=Peltonychia coreana longipes]S75
    |                     |  `--Metanippononychus Suzuki 1975DS18, S75
    |                     |       |  i. s.: M. daisenensis Suzuki 1975S75
    |                     |       |         M. iyanus Suzuki 1975S75
    |                     |       |--M. iriei Suzuki 1975DS18, S75
    |                     |       |    |--M. i. irieiS75
    |                     |       |    `--M. i. yakuensis Suzuki 1975S75
    |                     |       `--+--*M. tomishimai Suzuki 1975S75, DS18, S75
    |                     |          |    |--M. t. tomishimaiS75
    |                     |          |    `--M. t. awanus Suzuki 1975S75
    |                     |          `--Nippononychus Suzuki 1975DS18, S75
    |                     |               `--*N. japonicus (Miyoshi 1957)S75, KMS14 [=Peltonychia japonicaS75]
    |                     `--+--Zuma Goodnight & Goodnight 1942DS18, K03
    |                        |    |--*Z. acuta Goodnight & Goodnight 1942 [=Z. acuba (l. c.)]K03
    |                        |    `--Z. tioga Briggs 1971K03
    |                        `--+--Kainonychus Suzuki 1975DS18, S75
    |                           |    `--*K. akamai (Suzuki 1972) [=Peltonychia akamai]S75
    |                           |         |--K. a. akamaiS75
    |                           |         `--K. a. esoensis Suzuki 1975S75
    |                           `--Izunonychus Suzuki 1975DS18, S75
    |                                `--*I. ohruii Suzuki 1975S75
    `--TriaenonychoideaDL23
         |--+--LomanellidaeDB21
         |  |    |--LomanellaBS20
         |  |    `--Abaddon Dekarabetian & Baker in Derkarabetian, Baker et al. 2021DB21
         |  |         `--*A. despoliator Derkarabetian in Derkarabetian, Baker et al. 2021DB21
         |  `--SynthetonychiaDB21
         `--+--TriaenonychidaeDB21
            `--Buemarinoidae [Buemarinoini]DB21
                 |  i. s.: Buemarinoa Roewer 1956BS20, KM07
                 |           `--*B. patrizii Roewer 1956KM07
                 |--Flavonuncia Lawrence 1959DB21, S92
                 |    `--*F. pupilla Lawrence 1959S92
                 `--+--Fumontana Shear 1977DB21, K03
                    |    `--*F. deprehendor Shear 1977 [=F. deprehensor (l. c.)]K03
                    `--Turonychus Derkarabetian, Prieto & Giribet in Derkarabetian, Baker et al. 2021DB21
                         `--*T. fadriquei Derkarabetian, Prieto & Giribet in Derkarabetian, Baker et al. 2021DB21

Paranonychidae [Kaolinonychinae, Nippononychidae, Nippononychinae, Paranonychinae, Paranychinae, Sclerobunidae, Sclerobuninae]DS18

Sclerobunus Banks 1893DS18, K03 [incl. Cyptobunus Banks 1905K03, Cryptobunus (l. c.) non Lawrence 1931K03]

Sclerobunus cavicolens (Banks 1905) [=*Cyptobunus cavicolus, Cyp. cavicolens, Cytobunus (l. c.) cavicolens]DH14

Sclerobunus madhousensis (Briggs 1971) [=Cyptobunus ungulatus madhousensis, Cryptobunus (l. c.) ungulatus madhousensis, Cytobunus (l. c.) ungulatus madhousensis]DH14

*Sclerobunus robustus (Packard 1877) [=Scotolemon robustum, Phalangodes robusta, P. robustus]DH14

Travunia troglodytes (Roewer 1915)KMS14 [=*Absolonia troglodytesKM07, *Abasola troglodytesKM07, Scotolemon anophthalmum Absolon 1916 (n. n.)KM07, *Travunia anophthalma Absolon 1920KM07]

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[BS20] Baker, C. M., K. Sheridan, S. Derkarabetian, A. Pérez-González, S. Vélez & G. Giribet. 2020. Molecular phylogeny and biogeography of the temperate Gondwanan family Triaenonychidae (Opiliones: Laniatores) reveals pre-Gondwanan regionalisation, common vicariance, and rare dispersal. Invertebrate Systematics 34: 637–660.

[BH09] Bragg, P. D., & R. G. Holmberg. 2009. The harvestmen (Arachnida, Opiliones) of British Columbia. J. Entomol. Soc. Brit. Columbia 106: 29–37.

[DB21] Derkarabetian, S., C. M. Baker, M. Hedin, C. E. Prieto & G. Giribet. 2021. Phylogenomic re-evaluation of Triaenonychoidea (Opiliones: Laniatores), and systematics of Triaenonychidae, including new families, genera and species. Invertebrate Systematics 35: 133–157.

[DH14] Derkarabetian, S., & M. Hedin. 2014. Integrative taxonomy and species delimitation in harvestmen: a revision of the western North American genus Sclerobunus (Opiliones: Laniatores: Travunioidea). PLoS One 9 (8): e104982.

[DL23] Derkarabetian, S., A. Lord, K. Angier, E. Frigyik & G. Giribet. 2023. An Opiliones-specific ultraconserved element probe set with a near-complete family-level phylogeny. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 187: 107887.

[DS18] Derkarabetian, S., J. Starrett, N. Tsurusaki, D. Ubick, S. Castillo & M. Hedin. 2018. A stable phylogenomic classification of Travunioidea (Arachnida, Opiliones, Laniatores) based on sequence capture of ultraconserved elements. ZooKeys 760: 1–36.

[K03] Kury, A. B. 2003. Annotated catalogue of the Laniatores of the New World (Arachnida, Opiliones). Revista Ibérica de Aracnología, volumen especial monográfico 1: 1–337.

[K07] Kury, A. B. 2007. Travuniidae Absolon and Kratochvíl, 1932. In: Pinto-da-Rocha, R., G. Machado & G. Giribet (eds) Harvestmen: The Biology of Opiliones pp. 237–239. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[KM07] Kury, A. B., & A. C. Mendes. 2007. Taxonomic status of the European genera of Travuniidae (Arachnida, Opiliones, Laniatores). Munis Entomology & Zoology 2 (1): 1–14.

[KMS14] Kury, A. B., A. C. Mendes & D. R. Souza. 2014. World checklist of Opiliones species (Arachnida). Part 1: Laniatores—Travunioidea and Triaenonychoidea. Biodiversity Data Journal 2: e4094.

[M18] Martens, J. 2018. A European discovery: Kalliste pavonum gen. nov., sp. nov., the smallest phalangiid species known to date (Arachnida: Opiliones: Phalangiidae). Revue Suisse de Zoologie 125 (1): 155–164.

[S92] Staręga, W. 1992. An annotated check-list of Afrotropical harvestmen, excluding the Phalangiidae (Opiliones). Annals of the Natal Museum 33 (2): 271–336.

[S75] Suzuki, S. 1975. The harvestmen of family Triaenonychidae in Japan and Korea (Travunoidea, Opiliones, Arachnida). Journal of Science of the Hiroshima University, Series B, Division 1 (Zoology) 26: 65–101.

[UD05] Ubick, D., & J. A. Dunlop. 2005. On the placement of the Baltic amber harvestman Gonyleptes nemastomoides Koch & Berendt, 1854, with notes on the phylogeny of Cladonychiidae (Opiliones, Laniatores, Travunioidea). Mitteilungen Museum für Naturkunde, Geowissenschaftlichen Reihe 8: 75–82.

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