Ipomoea

Morning glory Ipomoea violacea, from here.

Belongs within: Convolvuloideae.

Ipomoea is a cosmopolitan genus of twining herbs, many of which are commonly referred to as morning glories. Notable members include the kumara or sweet potato I. batatas, widely grown for its edible tubers. Water spinach or kangkong I. aquatica is cultivated in Asia as a vegetable green. The beach morning glory I. pes-caprae is a pantropical species found growing on the upper parts of sandy shores; its seeds are tolerant of salt water and may be widely dispersed by oceanic currents.

Characters (from Allan 1961): Twining prostrate or scrambling herbs, often lianoid, with alternate, variously cut leaves. Flowers pentamerous, large, ebracteate, axillary, solitary or in cymes. Outer calyx-lobes or sepals usually larger than inner, erect. Corolla usually broad-funnelform, limb sometimes angled or lobed. Staminal filaments filiform, stigma capitate or with two globose lobes. Capsule usually subglobose, four-valved. Seeds glabrous or pubescent.

<==Ipomoea Linnaeus 1753A61
    |--I. sect. BatatasST98
    |    |--I. batatas (L.) Lam. 1804ST98, L95 [=Convolvulus batatas L. 1753L95; incl. C. chrysorhizusC06]
    |    |--‘Batatas’ edulisC55b
    |    `--‘Batatas’ paniculata [=Convolvulus paniculatus; incl. Ipomoea insignis]C55b
    |--I. sect. CalonyctionST98
    |    |--I. alba L. 1753ST98, L95 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--‘Calonyction’ speciosumC55b
    |    `--I. turbinataST98
    |--I. sect. EriospermumST98
    |    |--I. anisomeresST98
    |    |--I. batatoidesST98
    |    |--I. eremnobrochaST98
    |    |--I. habelianaST98
    |    |--I. horsfalliae Hook. 1854ST98, L95
    |    |--I. reticulataST98
    |    `--I. umbraticolaST98
    |--I. sect. ErpipomoeaST98
    |    |--I. aquatica Forssk. 1775ST98, L95 (see below for synonymy)
    |    `--I. violacea L. 1753ST98, L95 (see below for synonymy)
    |--I. sect. MinaST98
    |    |--I. hederifolia L. 1759ST98, L95 [incl. I. angulata Lam. 1783L95, Quamoclit angulata (Lam.) Bojer 1837L95]
    |    `--I. neeiST98
    |--I. (sect. Orthipomoea) cairicaST98
    |    |--I. c. ssp. cairicaST98
    |    `--I. c. ssp. brasiliensisST98 (see below for synonymy)
    `--I. sect. PharbitisST98
         |--I. eriocarpaST98
         |--I. nil (L.) Roth 1797L95 [=Convolvulus nil L. 1762L95, Pharbitis nilC55b]
         `--I. setifera Poir. in Lam. 1804ST98, L95 (see below for synonymy)
Ipomoea incertae sedis:
  *I. pes-tigridisSAO03
  I. abruptaVT13
  I. bilobaYZ02
  I. calantha Griseb. 1866L95
  I. calobraST98
  I. caricaWL10
  I. carnea Jacq. 1760L95
    |--I. c. ssp. carneaL95
    `--I. c. ssp. fistulosa (Mart. ex Choisy) Austin 1977 (see below for synonymy)L95
  I. copticaC55a
  I. costataVT13
  I. diamantinensis Black ex Eardley 1965E65
  I. diversifoliaLK14
  I. eggersianaL95
  I. filicaulisC55b
  I. gracilisE65
  I. gramineaVT13
  I. hastataBR65
  I. hederaceaGR98 [=Pharbitis hederaceaC55b]
  I. heterophyllaBR65
  I. imperati (Vahl) Griseb. 1866L95 (see below for synonymy)
  I. indica (Burman) Merr. 1917L95
    |--I. i. var. indicaL95
    `--I. i. var. acuminata (Vahl) Fosberg 1976L95 (see below for synonymy)
  I. involucrataC55a
  I. krugii Urban 1908L95
  I. leariiR44
  I. lonchophyllaBR65
  I. malvaeoidesF11
  I. mammosa [=Batata mammosa, Convolvulus mammosus]C55b
  I. mauritianaLC02
  I. meyeri (Spreng.) Don 1838 [=Convolvulus meyeri Spreng. 1825]L95
  I. microdactyla Griseb. 1866 (see below for synonymy)L95
  I. muelleriBR65
  I. muricataC55a
  I. mutabilisH93
  I. ochracea (Lindl.) Don 1837L95
    |--I. o. var. ochraceaL95
    `--I. o. var. curtisii (House) Stearn 1959 [=I. curtisii House 1908]L95
  I. oliganthaC55a
  I. palmata Forsk. 1775A61 [incl. I. pendula Br. 1810A61, I. pulchellaME70, I. tuberculata Roem. & Schult. 1819A61]
  I. pandurataRC02
  I. pes-caprae (Linnaeus) Br. in Tuckey 1818L95 [=Convolvulus pes-caprae Linnaeus 1753A61]
  I. plebejaE65
  I. polphaST98
  I. polymorphaM99
  I. purpurea (L.) Roth 1787 [=Convolvulus purpureus L. 1762]L95
  I. quamoclit L. 1753 (see below for synonymy)L95
  I. racemigeraBR65
  I. reniformisSB72
  I. repanda Jacq. 1760 [=Exogonium repandum (Jacq.) Choisy 1837]L95
  I. sagittataC55b
  I. sessilifloraC55b
  I. sindicaPP07
  I. staphylinaRS02
  I. steudelii Millsp. 1900 (see below for synonymy)L95
  I. tenuissima Choisy ex DC. 1845L95
  I. tiliacea (Willd.) Choisy in DC. 1845 (see below for synonymy)L95
  I. trichospermaLK14
  I. tricolor Cav. 1795L95
  I. triloba L. 1753 (see below for synonymy)L95
  I. vagansGC05
  I. wrightii Gray 1878 (see below for synonymy)L95
  I. yardiensisK90

Ipomoea alba L. 1753ST98, L95 [incl. Convolvulus aculeatus L. 1753L95, Calonyction aculeatum (L.) House 1904L95, Ipomoea aculeata (L.) Kuntze 1891 non Blume 1825L95, I. bona-nox L. 1762 (nom. illeg.)L95]

Ipomoea aquatica Forssk. 1775ST98, L95 [incl. Convolvulus repens Vahl 1790 non L. 1753L95, I. reptans Poiret in Lam. 1814L95]

Ipomoea cairica ssp. brasiliensisST98 [=Convolvulus brasiliensis L. 1753L95, I. pes-caprae ssp. brasiliensis (L.) Ooststr. 1940L95]

Ipomoea carnea ssp. fistulosa (Mart. ex Choisy) Austin 1977 [=I. fistulosa Mart. ex Choisy in DC. 1845; incl. Batatas crassicaulis Benth. 1845, I. crassicaulis (Benth.) Rob. 1916]L95

Ipomoea imperati (Vahl) Griseb. 1866L95 [=Convolvulus imperati Vahl 1790L95; incl. Batatas acetosaefoliaC55a, Ipomoea acetosaefolia (Vahl) R. & S. 1819L95, Convolvulus arenarius Vahl 1790L95, I. arenaria (Vahl) R. & S. 1819L95, I. carnea Br. 1819 non Jacq. 1760L95, Convolvulus littoralis L. 1759L95, Batatas littoralisC55b, Ipomoea littoralis (L.) Boiss. 1875 non Blume 1826L95, Convolvulus stoloniferus Cyr. 1788 (nom. illeg.)L95, I. stolonifera (Cyr.) Gmelin in L. 1791L95]

Ipomoea indica var. acuminata (Vahl) Fosberg 1976L95 [=Convolvulus acuminatus Vahl 1794L95, I. acuminata (Vahl) R. & S. 1819 non Ruiz & Pavon 1799L95, Pharbitis acuminataC55a; incl. I. cathartica Poir. in Lam. 1816L95, P. catharticaC38, I. congesta Br. 1810L95]

Ipomoea microdactyla Griseb. 1866 [=Exogonium microdactylum (Griseb.) House 1903, I. repanda var. microdactyla (Griseb.) Powell 1979]L95

Ipomoea quamoclit L. 1753 [=Quamoclit quamoclit (L.) Britt. & Brown 1898; incl. Convolvulus pennatus Desr. in Lam. 1792, Q. pinnata Bojer 1837]L95

Ipomoea setifera Poir. in Lam. 1804ST98, L95 [incl. I. palustris Urban 1925L95, I. rubra (Vahl) Millsp. 1900 non Murray 1774L95]

Ipomoea steudelii Millsp. 1900 [incl. Exogonium arenarium Choisy 1838, I. arenaria (Choisy) Steud. 1840 non (Vahl) R. & S. 1819]L95

Ipomoea tiliacea (Willd.) Choisy in DC. 1845 [=Convolvulus tiliaceus Willd. 1809; incl. I. cymosa Meyer 1818, C. fastigiatus Roxb. 1814 (n. n.), I. fastigiata (Roxb.) Sweet 1827]L95

Ipomoea triloba L. 1753 [incl. I. eustachiana Jacq. 1767, I. parviflora Vahl 1794, Convolvulus sloanei Sprengel 1824]L95

Ipomoea violacea L. 1753ST98, L95 [incl. I. macrantha R. & S. 1819L95, Convolvulus tuba Schlecht. 1831L95, Calonyction tuba (Schlecht.) Colla 1840L95, Ipomoea tuba (Schlecht.) Don 1838L95]

Ipomoea wrightii Gray 1878 [incl. Convolvulus heptaphyllus Roxb 1824 non Rottb. & Willd. 1803, I. spiralis House 1907]L95

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[A61] Allan, H. H. 1961. Flora of New Zealand vol. 1. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Filicopsida, Gymnospermae, Dicotyledones. R. E. Owen, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[BR65] Black, J. M., & E. L. Robertson. 1965. Flora of South Australia. Part IV. Oleaceae–Compositae. W. L. Hawes, Government Printer: Adelaide.

[C55a] Candolle, A. de. 1855a. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 1. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C55b] Candolle, A. de. 1855b. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C06] Cheeseman, T. F. 1906. Manual of the New Zealand Flora. John Mackay, Government Printer: Wellington.

[C38] Crawford, J. C. 1938. Some new or little known Thysanoptera. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 40 (2): 35–43.

[E65] Eardley, C. M. 1965. Diagnoses to new taxa. In: Black, J. M., & E. L. Robertson. Flora of South Australia. Part IV. Oleaceae–Compositae pp. 945–946. W. L. Hawes, Government Printer: Adelaide.

[F11] Fraga, R. M. 2011. Family Icteridae (New World blackbirds). In: Hoyo, J. del, A. Elliott & D. A. Christie (eds) Handbook of the Birds of the World vol. 16. Tanagers to New World Blackbirds pp. 684–807. Lynx Edicions: Barcelona.

[GC05] Granjon, L., J.-F. Cosson, E. Quesseveur & B. Sicard. 2005. Population dynamics of the multimammate rat Mastomys huberti in an annually flooded agricultural region of central Mali. Journal of Mammalogy 86 (5): 997–1008.

[GR98] Greuter, W., & T. Raus (eds.) 1998. Med-Checklist Notulae, 17. Willdenowia 28: 163–174.

[K90] Keighery, G. J. 1990. Vegetation and flora of Shark Bay, Western Australia. In: Berry, P. F., S. D. Bradshaw & B. R. Wilson (eds) Research in Shark Bay: Report of the France-Australe Bicentenary Expedition Committee pp. 61–87. Western Australian Museum.

[LC02] Långström, E., & M. W. Chase. 2002. Tribes of Boraginoideae (Boraginaceae) and placement of Antiphytum, Echiochilon, Ogastemma and Sericostoma: a phylogenetic analysis based on atpB plastid DNA sequence data. Plant Systematics and Evolution 234: 137–153.

[L95] Liogier, H. A. 1995. Descriptive Flora of Puerto Rico and Adjacent Islands: Spermatophyta-Dicotyledoneae vol. 4. Melastomataceae to Lentibulariaceae. Editorial de la Universidad de Puerto Rico.

[LK14] Lyons, M. N., G. J. Keighery, L. A. Gibson & T. Handasyde. 2014. Flora and vegetation communities of selected islands off the Kimberley coast of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 205–244.

[M99] Matthews, M. 1999. Heliothine Moths of Australia: A guide to bollworms and related noctuid groups. CSIRO Publishing.

[ME70] Moore, L. B., & E. Edgar. 1970. Flora of New Zealand vol. 2. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Monocotyledones except Gramineae. A. R. Shearer, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[PP07] Pandey, R. P., & P. M. Padhye. 2007. Studies on phytodiversity of Arid Machia Safari Park-Kailana in Jodhpur (Rajasthan). Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49: 15–78.

[RS02] Radhakrishna, S., & M. Singh. 2002. Activity schedule and habitat use of the slender loris Loris tardigradus lydekkerianus. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 400–407.

[R44] Rayment, T. 1944. A critical revision of species in the zonata group of Anthophora by new characters (part I). Dobutu Gaku—Iho 1 (1): 1–33.

[RC02] Riley, E. G., S. M. Clark, R. W. Flowers & A. J. Gilbert. 2002. Chrysomelidae Latreille 1802. In: Arnett, R. H., Jr, M. C. Thomas, P. E. Skelley & J. H. Frank (eds) American Beetles vol. 2. Polyphaga: Scarabaeoidea through Curculionoidea pp. 617–691. CRC Press.

[ST98] Schimming, T., B. Tofern, P. Mann, A. Richter, K. Jenett-Siems, B. Dräger, N. Asano, M. P. Gupta, M. D. Correa & E. Eich. 1998. Distribution and taxonomic significance of calystegines in the Convolvulaceae. Phytochemistry 49: 1989–1995.

[SB72] Sen, D. N., & M. C. Bhandari. 1972. Merremia aegyptia (Linn.) Urban—a new host of Albugo in the Indian arid zone and its ecological implications. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 69 (2): 453–455.

[SAO03] Stefanović, S., D. F. Austin & R. G. Olmstead. 2003. Classification of Covolvulaceae: a phylogenetic approach. Systematic Botany 28 (4): 791–806.

[VT13] Vigilante, T., J. Toohey, A. Gorring, V. Blundell, T. Saunders, S. Mangolamara, K. George, J. Oobagooma, M. Waina, K. Morgan & K. Doohan. 2013. Island country: aboriginal connections, values and knowledge of the Western Australian Kimberley islands in the context of an island biological survey. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 145–182.

[WL10] Wang, C.-L., F.-C. Lin, Y.-C. Chiu & H.-T. Shih. 2010. Species of Frankliniella Trybom (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) from the Asian-Pacific area. Zoological Studies 49 (6): 824–838.

[YZ02] Yahya, H. S. A., & A. A. Zarri. 2002. Status, ecology and behaviour of Narcondam hornbill (Aceros narcondami) in Narcondam Island, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 434–445.

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