Sabacon cf. cavicolens, copyright Marshal Hedin.

Belongs within: Palpatores.
Contains: Ischyropsalis.

The Ischyropsalidoidea are a clade of harvestmen found in the Holarctic region, members of which have an unsegmented ovipositor in females, and a penis with a single muscle in males (Shultz 1998).

<==Ischyropsalidoidea [Ischropsalidae, Ischyropsalidae, Ischyropsalidoidae]
    |  i. s.: Piankhi Dunlop, Bartel & Mitov 2012DBM12
    |           `--*P. steineri Dunlop, Bartel & Mitov 2012DBM12
    |  |    |--IschyropsalisS13
    |  |    `--Ceratolasmatinae [Ceratolasmatidae]S13
    |  |         |--Ceratolasma Goodnight & Goodnight 1942S98
    |  |         |    `--*C. tricantha Goodnight & Goodnight 1942GG42
    |  |         `--Acuclavella Shear 1986G07b, G07a
    |  |              |--*A. cosmetoides Shear 1986S13
    |  |              |--A. merickeli Shear 1986BH09
    |  |              |--A. quattuor Shear 1986E90
    |  |              `--A. shoshone Shear 1986E90
    |  `--+--+--Crosbycus Roewer 1914S10
    |     |  |    |--*C. dasycnemus (Crosby 1911) [=Nemastoma dasycnemum]S13
    |     |  |    |--C. pentelicus Roewer 1951 (n. d.)S13
    |     |  |    `--C. speluncarum Roewer 1951 (n. d.)S13
    |     |  `--Hesperonemastoma Gruber 1970GV09, S10
    |     |       |--*H. pallidimaculosum (Goodnight & Goodnight 1945) [=Nemastoma pallidimaculosa, N. pallidimaculosum]S10
    |     |       |--H. kepharti (Crosby & Bishop 1924) [=Nemastoma kepharti]S13
    |     |       |--H. modestum (Banks 1894)BH09 [=Nemastoma modestaBH09, N. modestumR23]
    |     |       |--H. packardi (Roewer 1914) (see below for synonymy)S10
    |     |       `--H. smilax Shear 2010S10
    |     `--TaracidaeDL23
    |          |--Oskoron Shear in Shear & Warfel 2016SW16
    |          |    |--*O. spinosus (Banks 1894)KM20 (see below for synonymy)
    |          |    |--O. brevichelis Shear in Shear & Warfel 2016KM20
    |          |    `--O. crawfordi Shear in Shear & Warfel 2016KM20
    |          `--Taracus Simon 1879S98
    |               |--*T. packardi Simon 1879 [incl. T. nigripes Goodnight & Goodnight 1943]SW16
    |               |--T. audisioae Shear in Shear & Warfel 2016KM20
    |               |--T. birsteini Lyovushkin 1972PS21
    |               |--T. carmanah Shear in Shear & Warfel 2016KM20
    |               |--T. fluvipileus Shear in Shear & Warfel 2016KM20
    |               |--T. gertschi Goodnight & Goodnight 1942GG42
    |               |--T. marchingtoni Shear in Shear & Warfel 2016KM20
    |               |--T. pallipes Banks 1894R23
    |               |--T. silvestrii Roewer 1929S13
    |               |--T. spesavius Shear in Shear & Warfel 2016KM20
    |               |--T. taylori Shear in Shear & Warfel 2016KM20
    |               |--T. timpanogos Shear in Shear & Warfel 2016KM20
    |               `--T. ubicki Shear in Shear & Warfel 2016KM20
    `--Sabacon Simon 1879S13 (see below for synonymy)
         |--*S. paradoxus Simon 1879G02 [=Sa. paradoxumG02, Scotolemon paradoxusD04]
         |--S. akiyoshiensis Suzuki 1963 [=S. akiyoshiense]S13
         |--S. altomontanus Martens 1983 [=S. altomontanum]S13
         |--S. astoriensis Shear 1975E90
         |--S. briggsi Shear 1975E90
         |--S. bryantii (Banks 1898) (see below for synonymy)S13
         |--S. cavicolens (Packard 1884) (see below for synonymy)S13
         |--S. chomolongmae Martens 1972S13
         |--S. claviger (Menge 1854) [=Nemastoma clavigerum; incl. S. bachofeni Roewer 1939]D06
         |--S. crassipalpis (Koch 1879)G07a, CL00 (see below for synonymy)
         |--S. crassipesS66
         |--S. dentipalpis Suzuki 1949 [=S. dentipalpe]S13
         |--S. dhaulagiri Martens 1972S13
         |--S. distinctus Suzuki 1974 [=S. distinctum]S13
         |--S. franzi Roewer 1953S13
         |--S. gonggashan Tsurusaki & Song 1993TS93
         |--S. imamurai Suzuki 1964T06
         |--S. iriei Suzuki 1974S13
         |--S. ishizuchi Suzuki 1974S13
         |--S. jiriensis Martens 1972S13
         |--S. kangling Martens 2016SW16
         |--S. makinoi Suzuki 1949T06
         |    |--S. m. makinoi [incl. S. habei Suzuki 1965]S13
         |    `--S. m. sugimotoi Suzuki & Tsurusaki 1983S13
         |--S. martensi Tsurusaki & Song 1993TS93
         |--S. mitchelli Crosby & Bishop 1924E90
         |--S. occidentalis (Banks 1894) [=Phlegmacera occidentalis]BH09
         |--S. okadai Suzuki 1941DBM12
         |--S. palpogranulatus Martens 1972 [=S. palpogranulatum]S13
         |--S. pasonianus Luque 1991 (see below for synonymy)S13
         |--S. picosantrum Martens 1983S13
         |--S. pygmaeus Miyosi 1942TT05 [=S. pygmaeumTM00]
         |--S. relictus Marten 1972 [=S. relictum]S13
         |--S. rossopacificus Martens 2015PS21
         |--S. satoikioi Miyosi 1942S13
         |--S. sergeidedicatus Martens 1989 [=S. sergeidedicatum]S13
         |--S. sheari Cokendolpher 1984E90
         |--S. simoni Dresco 1952S13
         |--S. siskiyou Shear 1975E90
         |--S. unicornis Martens 1972DBM12
         `--S. viscayanus Simon 1881 [=S. viscayanum, S. viscayasanum, S. vizcayanus]S13
              |--S. v. viscayanus [incl. S. inflatus Dresco 1955 (n. n.)]S13
              `--S. v. ramblaianus Martens 1983 [=S. viscayanum ramblaianum]S13

Hesperonemastoma packardi (Roewer 1914) [=Nemastoma packardi, N. troglodytes Packard 1877 non Leiobunum troglodytes Wankel 1861]S10

*Oskoron spinosus (Banks 1894)KM20 [=Taracus spinosusKM20, T. spinosaR23; incl. T. malkini Goodnight & Goodnight 1945SW16]

Sabacon Simon 1879S13 [incl. Parasabacon Hansen & Sørensen 1904S23, Phlegmacera Packard 1884S13, Tomicomerus Pavesi 1899S13; SabaconidaeDL23]

Sabacon bryantii (Banks 1898) [=Phlegamacera bryantii, S. bryanti (l. c.), *Tomicomerus bryantii, T. bryanti (l. c.); incl. T. bispinosus Pavesi 1899]S13

Sabacon cavicolens (Packard 1884) [=*Phlegmacera cavicolens, P. cavicoleus (l. c.); incl. Nemastoma inops Packard 1884, Hesperonemastoma inops, Sabacon jonesi Goodnight & Goodnight 1942, S. spinosus Weed 1893]S13

Sabacon crassipalpis (Koch 1879)G07a, CL00 [=Nemastoma crassipalpeG07a, *Parasabacon crassipalpisG07a, Sabacon crassipalpeCL00]

Sabacon pasonianus Luque 1991 [=S. picosantrum pasonianum, S. picosantrum asonianum (l. c.), S. picosantrum asoniarum (l. c.)]S13

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BH09] Bragg, P. D., & R. G. Holmberg. 2009. The harvestmen (Arachnida, Opiliones) of British Columbia. J. Entomol. Soc. Brit. Columbia 106: 29–37.

[CL00] Chemeris, A. N., & D. V. Logunov. 2000. Notes on two species of Sabacon Simon, 1879 from the mountains of South Siberia (Arachnida: Opiliones: Sabaconidae). Arthropoda Selecta 9 (3): 207–213.

[D04] Delfosse, E. 2004. Catalogue préliminaire des Opilions de France métropolitaine (Arachnida Opiliones). Bulletin de Phyllie 20: 34–58.

[DL23] Derkarabetian, S., A. Lord, K. Angier, E. Frigyik & G. Giribet. 2023. An Opiliones-specific ultraconserved element probe set with a near-complete family-level phylogeny. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 187: 107887.

[D06] Dunlop, J. A. 2006. Baltic amber harvestman types (Arachnida: Opiliones: Eupnoi and Dyspnoi). Fossil Record 9 (2): 167–182.

[DBM12] Dunlop, J. A., C. Bartel & P. G. Mitov. 2012. An enigmatic spiny harvestman from Baltic amber. Fossil Record 15 (2): 91–101.

[E90] Edgar, A. L. 1990. Opiliones (Phalangida). In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 529–581. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[GV09] Giribet, G., L. Vogt, A. Pérez González, P. Sharma & A. B. Kury. 2009. A multilocus approach to harvestman (Arachnida: Opiliones) phylogeny with emphasis on biogeography and the systematics of Laniatores. Cladistics 25: 1–30.

[GG42] Goodnight, C. J., & M. L. Goodnight. 1942. New American Phalangida. American Museum Novitates 1164: 1–4.

[G02] Gruber, J. 2002. Origin and gender of the name Sabacon Simon, 1879 (Opiliones: Palpatores: Ischyropsalidoidea). Newsl. Brit. Arachnol. Soc. 96: 6.

[G07a] Gruber, J. 2007a. Dyspnoi: Historical systematic synopsis. In: Pinto-da-Rocha, R., G. Machado & G. Giribet (eds) Harvestmen: The Biology of Opiliones pp. 131–135. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[G07b] Gruber, J. 2007b. Ceratolasmatidae Shear, 1986. In: Pinto-da-Rocha, R., G. Machado & G. Giribet (eds) Harvestmen: The Biology of Opiliones pp. 136–142. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[KM20] Kury, A. B., A. C. Mendes, L. Cardoso, M. S. Kury & A. A. Granado. 2020. WCO-Lite: Online world catalogue of harvestmen (Arachnida, Opiliones). Version 1.0—Checklist of all valid nomina in Opiliones with authors and dates of publication up to 2018. Published by the author: Rio de Janeiro.

[PS21] Prokopenko, E. V., & M. E. Sergeev. 2021. Harvestmen (Opiliones) of the Sikhote-Alin and the Far Eastern Marine Biosphere Reserves, Russia. Euroasian Entomological Journal 20 (3): 148–153.

[R23] Roewer, C.-F. 1923. Die Weberknechte der Erde: Systematische Bearbeitung der bisher bekannnten Opiliones. Gustav Fischer: Jena.

[S13] Schönhofer, A. L. 2013. A taxonomic catalogue of the Dyspnoi Hansen and Sørensen, 1904 (Arachnida: Opiliones). Zootaxa 3679 (1): 1–68.

[S10] Shear, W. A. 2010. Hesperonemastoma smilax, n. sp., a remarkable new harvestman from a cave in West Virginia, with comments on other reported cave-dwelling Hesperonemastoma species (Opiliones, Ischyropsalidoidea, Sabaconidae). Journal of Cave and Karst Studies 72 (2): 105–110.

[SW16] Shear, W. A., & J. G. Warfel. 2016. The harvestman genus Taracus Simon 1879, and the new genus Oskoron (Opiliones: Ischyropsalidoidea: Taracidae). Zootaxa 4180 (1): 1–71.

[S98] Shultz, J. W. 1998. Phylogeny of the Opiliones (Arachnida): an assessment of the “Cyphopalpatores” concept. Journal of Arachnology 26: 257–272.

[S66] Suzuki, S. 1966. Four remarkable phalangids from Korea. Annotationes Zoologicae Japonenses 39 (2): 95–106.

[T06] Tsurusaki, N. 2006. Harvestmen of Shimane Prefecture, western Honshu, Japan: an annotated list of species with special reference to geographic variation (Arachnida: Opiliones). In: Board of the Shimane Meeting of the Japanese Society of Biological Education (ed.) Shin Shimane no Seibutsu pp. 153–170. Board of the Shimane Meeting of the Japanese Society of Biological Education: Izuno (Japan).

[TM00] Tsurusaki, N., & H. Minato. 2000. Opiliones of Wakayama Prefecture, Honshu, Japan. Nankiseibutu 42 (1): 3–8.

[TS93] Tsurusaki, N., & D. Song. 1993. Two new species of Sabacon from Sichuan Province, China (Arachnida: Opiliones: Sabaconidae). Zoological Science 10: 155–159.

[TT05] Tsurusaki, N., M. Takanashi, N. Nagase & T. Shimada. 2005. Fauna and biogeography of harvestmen (Arachnida: Opiliones) of the Oki Islands, Japan. Acta Arachnologica 54 (1): 51–63.

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