Male Ischyropsalis hellwigii hellwigii, copyright Axel Schönhofer.

Belongs within: Ischyropsalidoidea.

Ischyropsalis is a genus of harvestmen found in Europe, members of which have conspicuously enlarged chelicerae in both sexes. Members of this genus are specialist predators of snails, using their large chelicerae to break open the snail’s shell.

Characters (from Schönhofer 2013): Palps long and thin, elongated to enable interaction with the chelicerae. Chelicerae massive and enlarged, longer than the body; in most species glandular fields of males associated with knob-like apophyses exposing the field to dorsal and/or distal side. Truncus penis simple, filled up to two thirds with a single muscle; muscular tendon short; base of truncus divided into two short root-like structures; glans penis usually simple and conical, but inflated and distinct from the truncus in many species; the sclerotised ventral plate mostly short, from roughly rhombic to deeply bi-lobed at the base; sclerotised area of glans with several defined regions exhibiting dense fields of mostly very thick, long and backward-pointing hairs; glans gradually tapering into a long stylus, the latter simple and pointed, bent at the base but without contortion or additional structures. Tuber oculorum without spine. Dorsal armature mostly lacking, dorsum smooth, often glossy, in few species opisthosomal areas raised to low, pointed bumps. Two or many spine-like metapeltidial structures, arranged in a transversal row.

<==Ischyropsalis Koch 1839 (see below for synonymy)S13
    |--*I. kollari Koch 1839S13 (see below for synonymy)
    |--I. adamii Canestrini 1873 (see below for synonymy)S13
    |--I. cantabrica Luque & Labrada 2012S13
    |--I. carli Lessert 1905 [incl. I. pentelica Roewer 1950]S13
    |--I. dentipalpis Canestrini 1872 [=I. (Odontopalpa) dentipalpis; incl. I. helvetica Roewer 1916]SM10
    |--I. dispar Simon 1872 [incl. I. archeri Roewer 1950, I. goodnighti Roewer 1950, I. noltei Dresco 1972]S13
    |--I. gigantea Dresco 1968S13
    |--I. hadzii Roewer 1950 [=Phalangium cancroides Schmidt 1851 non Acarus cancroides Linnaeus 1758]S13
    |--I. hellwigii (Panzer 1794)S13 [=Phalangium hellwigiiS13, Opilio helwigiiD04]
    |    |--I. h. hellwigiiS13 (see below for synonymy)
    |    `--I. h. lucantei Simon 1879 [incl. I. superbus Simon 1881, I. superba]S13
    |--I. hispanica Roewer 1953 [=I. hispanum]S13
    |--I. lithoclasica Schönhofer & Martens 2010S13
    |--I. luteipes Simon 1872S13 (see below for synonymy)
    |--I. magdalenae Simon 1881S13 [=I. madalenae (l. c.)S13, I. madelenaeD04]
    |--I. manicata Koch 1869 (see below for synonymy)S13
    |--I. muellneri Hamann 1898 [=I. muelleri (l. c.); incl. I. alfkeni Roewer 1950, I. corcyraea Roewer 1914]S13
    |--I. navarrensis Roewer 1950 [incl. I. espagnoli Dresco 1968, I. nicaea Roewer 1950, I. turki Roewer 1950]S13
    |--I. nodifera Simon 1879 (see below for synonymy)S13
    |--I. petiginosa Simon 1913 [=I. pectiginosa (l. c.)]S13
    |--I. pyrenaea Simon 1872 [=I. helwigi var. pyrenaea]S13
    |    |--I. p. pyrenaea [incl. I. moreana Roewer 1950, I. pyrenaea venasquensis Dresco 1967]S13
    |    `--I. p. alpinula Martens 1978S13
    |--I. ravasinii Hadži 1942S13
    |--I. redtenbacheri Doleschall 1852R23
    |--I. robusta Simon 1872 [=Ischiropsalis robusta; incl. I. lusitanica Roewer 1923]S13
    `--I. strandi Kratochvíl 1936 [incl. I. knirschi Roewer 1950, I. ruffoi Caporiacco 1947]S13

Ischyropsalis Koch 1839 [=Ischiropsalis (l. c.); incl. Lhermia Lucas 1866, Lermia (l. c.), Odontopalpa Hadži 1931; Ischyropsalidinae]S13

Ischyropsalis adamii Canestrini 1873 [incl. I. amseli Roewer 1950, I. apuanus Caporiacco 1930, I. apuana, I. kratochvili Roewer 1950, I. apuanus nanus Dresco 1968]S13

Ischryosalis hellwigii hellwigii (Panzer 1794)S13 [incl. I. crassichelis Roewer 1950S13, I. frankenbergi Bartoš 1938S13, I. franzi Roewer 1950S13, I. herbstii Koch 1847S13, I. pectinifera Hadži 1928S13, I. plicata Roewer 1923S13, I. taunica Müller in Roewer 1923KM20, I. tunicaD04]

*Ischyropsalis kollari Koch 1839S13 [incl. I. bosnica Roewer 1914S13, I. (Odontopalpa) bosnicaKM20, I. danubia Roewer 1950S13, I. nivalis Roewer 1950S13, I. reimoseri Roewer 1950S13, I. scutata Roewer 1950S13, I. segregata Roewer 1950S13, I. spinichelis Roewer 1950S13, I. strasseri Roewer 1950S13, I. styriaca Roewer 1950S13, I. tirolensis Roewer 1950S13, I. (Odontopalpa) triglavensis Hadži 1931S13, I. troglodytes Roewer 1950S13]

Ischyropsalis luteipes Simon 1872S13 [incl. I. caporiaccoi Roewer 1950S13, I. caporioccoi (l. c.)S13, I. pestae Roewer 1950S13, *Lhermia spinipes Lucas 1866 (n. o.)S13, Lermia (l. c.) spinipesR23]

Ischyropsalis manicata Koch 1869 [=I. manicatus (l. c.); incl. I. austriaca Roewer 1950, I. balcanica Roewer 1950, I. dacica Roewer 1916, I. ionatae Wajgel 1874 (n. n.), I. ionatai, I. kaestneri Roewer 1940, I. helvetica milleri Kratochvíl 1934]S13

Ischyropsalis nodifera Simon 1879 [incl. I. asturica Roewer 1950, I. corsica Roewer 1950, I. janetscheki Roewer 1950, I. sharpi Simon 1879]S13

*Type species of generic name indicated


[D04] Delfosse, E. 2004. Catalogue préliminaire des Opilions de France métropolitaine (Arachnida Opiliones). Bulletin de Phyllie 20: 34–58.

[KM20] Kury, A. B., A. C. Mendes, L. Cardoso, M. S. Kury & A. A. Granado. 2020. WCO-Lite: Online world catalogue of harvestmen (Arachnida, Opiliones). Version 1.0—Checklist of all valid nomina in Opiliones with authors and dates of publication up to 2018. Published by the author: Rio de Janeiro.

[R23] Roewer, C.-F. 1923. Die Weberknechte der Erde: Systematische Bearbeitung der bisher bekannnten Opiliones. Gustav Fischer: Jena.

[S13] Schönhofer, A. L. 2013. A taxonomic catalogue of the Dyspnoi Hansen and Sørensen, 1904 (Arachnida: Opiliones). Zootaxa 3679 (1): 1–68.

[SM10] Schönhofer, A. L., & J. Martens. 2010. On the identity of Ischyropsalis dentipalpis Canestrini, 1872 and description of Ischyropsalis lithoclasica sp. n. (Opiliones: Ischyropsalididae). Zootaxa 2613: 1–14.

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