Isotoma viridis, copyright Ivan Matertsev.

Belongs within: Isotomidae.

Isotoma is a genus of springtails bearing a postantennal organ together with a well-developed furcula with three or more teeth on the mucro. The Alaskan species I. alaskana has the postantennal organ replaced by eyes whereas other species have an ordinary arrangement of eyes and postantennal organ (Christiansen & Bellinger 1980).

Characters (from Christiansen & Bellinger 1980): Postantennal organ present; antenna with apical ‘pin’ seta; labrum with dorsal papillae; dental spines absent; furcula well developed, manubrium with 15 or more ventral setae, mucro with three or more teeth; 4+4 tenacular teeth present; ventral tube bearing frontal, lateral and caudal groups of setae; bothriotricha absent.

<==Isotoma Bourlet 1839CB80b
|--I. (Isotoma) [incl. Heteroisotoma Stach 1947, Pathisotoma Bagnall 1949]CB80b
| |--*I. (I.) viridis Bourlet 1839 (see below for synonymy)CB80b
| |--I. (I.) carpenteri Börner 1909 (see below for synonymy)CB80b
| |--I. (I.) bioculata Womersley 1934W39
| |--I. (I.) georgiana Schäffer 1891W39
| |--I. (I.) linnaniemia Womersley 1934W39
| |--I. (I.) pentomma Womersley 1939W39 [=I. decemoculata Womersley 1935 (preoc.)W39, Cryptopygus decemoculatusCB80b]
| |--I. (I.) pritchardi Womersley 1936W39
| |--I. (I.) raffi Womersley 1934W39
| |--I. (I.) subviridis Folsom 1937CB80b
| |--I. (I.) swani Womersley 1934W39
| |--I. (I.) termitophila Womersley 1934W39
| `--I. (I.) tridentifera Schött 1917 [incl. I. tridentifera var. edenticulata Womersley 1934]W39
|--I. (Cheirotoma Bagnall 1949)CB80b
| `--I. (*C.) spatulata Chamberlain 1943CB80b
|--I. (Desoria Nicolet 1841) [incl. Isotomurodes Bagnall 1949, Panurotoma Bagnall 1949, Pedisotoma Bagnall 1949]CB80b
| |--I. (*D.) saltans (Nicolet 1841) [=*Desoria saltans]CB80b
| |--I. (D.) agrelli Delamare 1950CB80b
| |--I. (D.) alaskensis Fjellberg 1978CB80b
| |--I. (D.) albella Packard 1873CB80b [incl. I. leonina Packard 1873CB80b, I. niveaS00, I. walkerii Packard 1871CB80b]
| |--I. (D.) atkasukiensis Fjellberg 1978CB80b
| |--I. (D.) blufusata Fjellberg 1978CB80b
| |--I. (D.) brucealla Wray 1953 [incl. I. brucei Wray 1953 non Carpenter 1907]CB80b
| |--I. (D.) caeruleatra Guthrie 1903CB80b
| |--I. (D.) canadensis Brown 1932 [=I. olivacea var. canadensis]CB80b
| |--I. (D.) cancellarei Christiansen & Bellinger 1980CB80b
| |--I. (D.) christianseni Fjellberg 1978CB80b
| |--I. (D.) creli Fjellberg 1978CB80b
| |--I. (D.) ekmani Fjellberg 1977 [incl. I. pallida Agrell 1939 non Nicolet 1842]CB80b
| |--I. (D.) fennica Reuter 1895CB80b
| |--I. (D.) flora Christiansen & Bellinger 1980CB80b
| |--I. (D.) gelida Folsom 1937 [=*Isotomurodes gelida]CB80b
| |--I. (D.) hiemalis Schött 1893 [incl. I. mucronata Axelson 1900]CB80b
| |--I. (D.) inupikella Fjellberg 1978CB80b
| |--I. (D.) japonica Yosii 1939CB80b
| |--I. (D.) komarkovae Fjellberg 1978CB80b
| |--I. (D.) macleani Fjellberg 1978CB80b
| |--I. (D.) manitobae Fjellberg 1978CB80b
| |--I. (D.) marissa Folsom 1937 [=*Panurotoma marissa]CB80b
| |--I. (D.) maxillosa Fjellberg 1978CB80b
| |--I. (D.) multisetis Carpenter & Phillips 1922CB80b
| |--I. (D.) nanseni Fjellberg 1978CB80b
| |--I. (D.) neglecta Schäffer 1900CB80b
| |--I. (D.) nigra MacGillivray 1896CB80b
| |--I. (D.) nigrifrons Folsom 1937CB80b
| |--I. (D.) ‘nivalis’ Carl 1906 non Packard 1873CB80b
| |--I. (D.) nixoni Fjellberg 1978CB80b
| |--I. (D.) olivacea Tullberg 1871CB80b
| |--I. (D.) propinqua Axelson 1902CB80b
| |--I. (D.) quadra Christiansen & Bellinger 1980CB80b
| |--I. (D.) randiella Fjellberg 1978CB80b
| |--I. (D.) speciosa MacGillivray 1896 (n. d.)CB80b
| |--I. (D.) subaequalis Folsom 1937 [=*Pedisotoma subaequalis]CB80b
| |--I. (D.) taigicola Fjellberg 1978CB80b
| |--I. (D.) tariva Wray 1953CB80b
| |--I. (D.) tigrina (Nicolet 1842) (see below for synonymy)CB80b
| |--I. (D.) torildae Fjellberg 1978CB80b
| |--I. (D.) trispinata MacGillivray 1896CB80b
| |--I. (D.) tuckeri Christiansen & Bellinger 1980CB80b
| |--I. (D.) tunica Christiansen & Bellinger 1980CB80b
| `--I. (D.) uniens Christiansen & Bellinger 1980CB80b
|--I. (Myopia Christiansen & Bellinger 1980)CB80b
| `--I. (*M.) alaskana Christiansen & Bellinger 1980CB80b
|--I. (Panchaetoma Bagnall 1949)CB80b
| `--I. (*P.) communa (MacGillivray 1896) [=Proisotoma communa, Granisotoma communa]CB80b
|--I. (Parisotoma Bagnall 1940)G86, CB80b
| |--I. (*P.) notabilis Schäffer 1896 [=I. (Desoria) notabilis; incl. I. eunotabilis Folsom 1934]CB80b
| `--I. (P.) octooculata Willem 1901G86 (see below for synonymy)
|--I. (Sorensia)G86
| |--I. (S.) punctataG86
| `--I. (S.) subflavaG86
`--I. (Vertagopus Börner 1906)CB80b
|--I. (*V.) cinerea (Nicolet 1842)CB80b
|--I. (V.) alpa Christiansen & Bellinger 1980CB80b
|--I. (V.) arborea (Linnaeus 1758) [incl. I. synonymica MacGillivray 1896, I. terminata MacGillivray 1896]CB80b
|--I. (V.) beta Christiansen & Bellinger 1980CB80b
|--I. (V.) monta Christiansen & Bellinger 1980CB80b
|--I. (V.) ‘montana’ Stach 1947 non I. glauca var. montana MacGillivray 1896CB80b
|--I. (V.) persea Wray 1952CB80b
|--I. (V.) pseudocinerea (Fjellberg 1975) (see below for synonymy)CB80b
`--I. (V.) reuteri Schött 1893CB80b

Isotoma incertae sedis:
I. acrea Wray 1953 (n. d.)CB80b
I. anglicana (Lubbock 1873)SL06
I. aspera Bacon 1914 (n. d.)CB80b
I. denticulataS00
I. finitima Stscherbakow 1899CB80b
I. gandhiCB80a
I. germanica Hüther & Winter 1961CB80b
I. glacialisR13
I. glauca Packard 1873 (n. d.)CB80b
I. gracilliseta Börner 1909CB80b
I. inaequalisS00
I. klovstadi Carpenter 1902W67
I. longipenna MacGillivray 1896 (n. d.)CB80b
I. louisiana Scott 1962 (n. d.)CB80b
I. lucama Wray 1952 (n. d.)CB80b
I. maritimaW39
I. muscorum Schäffer 1900S00
I. obtusicaudaS00
I. palustris [incl. I. palustris var. pallida, I. palustris var. prasina]S00
I. pseudomaritima Stach 1947CB80b
I. pusilla Schäffer 1900S00
I. sandersoni Wray 1952 (n. d.)CB80b
I. sexoculataS00
I. sphagneticola Linnaniemi 1912 (n. d.) [=Cryptopygus sphagneticola]CB80b
I. vestita Brown 1923CB80b
I. violacea Tullberg 1876CB80b [=I. olivacea var. violaceaH44]

Isotoma (Desoria) tigrina (Nicolet 1842) [=Desoria tigrina; incl. I. grisea Lubbock 1869, I. grisescens Schäffer 1896, I. stachi Denis 1929]CB80b

Isotoma (Isotoma) carpenteri Börner 1909 [incl. I. andrei Mills 1934, *Heteroisotoma andrei, *Pathisotoma andrei, Isotoma difficilis Folsom 1937]CB80b

*Isotoma (Isotoma) viridis Bourlet 1839 [incl. Desoria annulata Nicolet 1842, Isotoma viridis var. arctica Schött 1893, I. belfragei Packard 1873, Isotomurus bemakus Wray 1952, Isotoma capitola MacGillivray 1896, Isotoma catena Guthrie 1903, Isotoma palustris var. cincta Tullberg 1876, I. viridis var. delta MacGillivray 1896, Isotoma glauca var. montana MacGillivray 1896, Isotoma plumbea Packard 1873, Isotoma viridis var. pomona Folsom 1937, Isotoma purpurascens Packard 1873, Desoria riparia Nicolet 1842, I. tridentata MacGillivray 1896]CB80b

Isotoma (Parisotoma) octooculata Willem 1901G86 [=Parisotoma octooculata f. principalis Salmon 1949W67; incl. I. octooculata gracilis Carpenter 1907W67, P. octooculata gracilisW67, I. octooculata kerguelensis Enderlein 1903W67, P. octooculata kerguelensisW67, P. octooculata ovata Salmon 1949W67]

Isotoma (Vertagopus) pseudocinerea (Fjellberg 1975) [=Vertagopus pseudocinereus; incl. I. dilatata MacGillivray 1896, I. inclinata MacGillivray 1896, I. lateraria MacGillivray 1896, I. unica MacGillivray 1896]CB80b

*Type species of generic name indicated


[CB80a] Christiansen, K., & P. Bellinger. 1980a. The Collembola of North America north of the Rio Grande: A taxonomic analysis vol. 1. Introduction; general; families Poduridae and Hypogastruridae. Grinnell College: Grinnell (Iowa).

[CB80b] Christiansen, K., & P. Bellinger. 1980b. The Collembola of North America north of the Rio Grande: A taxonomic analysis vol. 2. Families Onychiuridae and Isotomidae. Grinnell College: Grinnell (Iowa).

[G86] Greenslade, P. 1986. Additions to the collembolan fauna of Heard Island. Records of the South Australian Museum 19 (7): 91–96.

[H44] Hammer, M. 1944. Studies on the oribatids and collemboles of Greenland. Meddelelser om Grønland 141 (3): 1–210.

[R13] Reuter, O. M. 1913. Lebensgewohnheiten und Instinkte der Insekten bis zum Erwachen der sozialen Instinkte. R. Friedländer & Sohn: Berlin.

[S00] Schäffer, C. 1900. Ueber württembergische Collembola. Jahreshefte des Vereins für vaterländische Naturkunde in Württemberg 56: 245–280, pl. 2.

[SL06] Schulz, H.-J., & P. Lymberakis. 2006. First contribution to the knowledge of the Collembola fauna of the White Mountains (Lefká Óri) in west Crete (Insecta, Collembola, Isotomidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 86 (2): 229–234.

[W67] Wise, K. A. J. 1967. Collembola (springtails). Antarctic Research Series 10: 123–148.

[W39] Womersley, H. 1939. Primitive Insects of South Australia: Silverfish, springtails, and their allies. South Australian Branch of the British Science Guild: Adelaide.

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