Archisotoma pulchella, copyright Arne Fjellberg.

Belongs within: Collembola.
Contains: Anurophorus, Tetracanthella, Cryptopygus, Folsomia, Folsomides, Proisotoma, Isotoma, Isotomurus.

The Isotomidae are a diverse family of elongate springtails. Members of the subfamily Anurophorinae are characterised by a ventral anal opening in contrast to the terminal anus of Proisotominae and Isotominae. The manubrium and dentes are approximately equal in length in Proisotominae whereas the dentes are much longer than the manubrium in Isotominae (Wise 1967).

Characters (from Soto-Adames et al. 2008): Scales, trochanteral organs and postocular bothriothrica absent. Antenna with four segments. Fourth abdominal segment usually subequal or shorter than third (except in a few genera with fused segments 4-6). Bothriothrica often absent.

    |--Anurophorinae [Anurophorini]W67
    |    |--AnurophorusCB80
    |    |--Proctostephanus stuckeriW39
    |    |--TetracanthellaW39
    |    |--CryptopygusW39
    |    |--FolsomiaW39
    |    |--FolsomidesW39
    |    |--Astephanus Denis 1927W39
    |    |    `--A. denisi Womersley 1935W39
    |    |--Arlea Womersley 1939W39
    |    |    `--*A. lucifuga (Arle 1939) [=Isotomina lucifuga]W39
    |    |--Uzelia Absolon 1901W39, CB80 [incl. PentapleotomaW39, ProtanurophorusW39]
    |    |    |--*U. setifera Absolon 1901CB80
    |    |    `--U. hansoni Mills & Richards 1953CB80
    |    |--Coloburella Latzel 1918CB80
    |    |    |--C. (Coloburella) [incl. Boernerella Denis 1925]CB80
    |    |    |    |--*C. (C.) reticulata Latzel 1918CB80
    |    |    |    |--C. (C.) octogenaria (Mills & Schmidt 1957) [=Boernerella octogenaria]CB80
    |    |    |    `--*Boernerella’ zangherii Denis 1925CB80
    |    |    `--C. (Paranurophorus Denis 1929)CB80, W39, CB80
    |    |         `--C. (*P.) simplex (Denis 1929) [=*Paranurophorus simplex; incl. P. armatus Stach 1947]CB80
    |    |--Isotomodes Linnaniemi 1907W39, CB80
    |    |    |--*I. productus (Axelson 1906) (see below for synonymy)CB80
    |    |    |--I. britanicus Bagnall 1939W39
    |    |    |--I. falsus Christiansen & Bellinger 1980CB80
    |    |    |--I. fiscus Christiansen & Bellinger 1980CB80
    |    |    `--I. klostermani Bernard 1973CB80
    |    |--Gressittacantha Wise 1967W67
    |    |    `--G. terranovaW67
    |    |--Neocryptopygus Salmon 1965W67
    |    |    `--N. nivicolus Salmon 1965W67
    |    `--Weberacantha Christiansen 1951W67
    |         `--*W. octa Christiansen 1951CB80
    |    |--ProisotomaW39
    |    `--Archisotoma Linnaniemi 1912W67, CB80
    |         |--*A. besselsi (Packard 1877) [=Isotoma besselsi; incl. Proisotoma laguna Folsom 1937]CB80
    |         |--A. brucei (Carpenter 1907) [=Isotoma brucei, Proisotoma brucei]W67
    |         |--A. interstitialis Delamare 1954TM86
    |         |--A. pauliani Delamare 1954TM86
    |         |--A. pulchella (Moniez 1890)TM86
    |         `--A. renaudi Delamare 1956TM86
    `--Isotominae [Isotomini]W67
         |--Pteronychella Börner 1909W39, CB80
         |    `--P. perpulchra Börner 1909CB80
         |--Cliforga alleghaniensis Wray 1952 (n. d.)CB81
         |--Agrenia Börner 1906W39, CB80
         |    `--*A. bidenticulata (Tullberg 1876) [=Isotoma bidenticulata]CB80
         |--Acanthomurus Womersley 1934W39
         |    `--*A. plumbeus Womersley 1934 [incl. A. plumbeus var. lineata Womersley 1934]W39
         |--Proisotomurus Womersley 1934W39
         |    `--*P. papillatus Womersley 1934W39
         |--Isotomiella Bagnall 1939W39
         |    |--*I. minor (Schäffer 1896) [=Isotoma minor]CB80
         |    `--I. symetrimucronata Najit & Thibaud 1987DBL20
         |--Pseudisotoma Handschin 1924CB80
         |    |--*P. sensibilis (Tullberg 1876)CB80, SL06 (see below for synonymy)
         |    `--P. monochaeta Kos 1942 [=Isotoma (Pseudisotoma) monochaeta]CB80
         |--Spinisotoma Stach 1926W39
         |    |--*S. pectinataW39
         |    `--S. dimorpha Womersley 1934W39
         |--Tomocerura Wahlgren 1900W39
         |    |--*T. picta Wahlgren 1900W39
         |    |--T. conjugens (Schffr. 1897)W39
         |    `--T. wahlgreni Womersley 1939W39
         |--Axelsonia Börner 1906W39, CB80
         |    |--*A. thalassophila Börner 1906CB80
         |    |--A. littoralis (Moniez 1890)CB80 [incl. A. australis Bagnall 1939W39]
         |    |--A. nitidaW39
         |    `--A. tubifera Strenzke 1958CB80
         `--Antarcticinella Salmon 1965W67
              `--A. monoculata Salmon 1965W67
Isotomidae incertae sedis:
  Rhyniella praecursor Hirst & Maulik 1926CP02
  Folsomotoma bioculataCP02, G91
  Stachanorema Wray 1957CB80
    |--*S. arnaudi Wray 1957CB80
    `--S. contra Christiansen & Bellinger 1980CB80
  Metisotoma Maynard 1951CB80
    `--M. grandiceps (Reuter 1891) (see below for synonymy)CB80
  Semicerura Maynard 1951CB80
    |--*S. bishopi Maynard 1951CB80
    `--S. multispinata (James 1933) [=Isotoma multispinata]CB80
  Bonetrura Christiansen & Bellinger 1980CB80
    `--*B. boneti (Yosii 1962) [=Guthriella boneti]CB80
  Micrisotoma Bellinger 1952CB80
    `--*M. achromata Bellinger 1952CB80
  Protoisotoma Christiansen & Pike 2002CP02
    `--*P. micromucra Christiansen & Pike 2002CP02
  Scutisotoma Bagnall 1949 [incl. Dimorphotoma Grinbergs 1975]SL06
    |--*S. titusi (Folsom 1937) [=Proisotoma titusi]CB80
    `--‘Dimorphotoma’ porcellus Ellis 1976SL06
  Psammisotoma kingiMC13
  Micranurophorus Bernard 1977CB80
    `--*M. musci Bernard 1977CB80
  Dagamaea Yosii 1965CB80
    `--D. tenuis (Folsom 1937) [=Isotomodes tenuis; incl. *D. japonica Yosii 1965]CB80
  Pentacanthella decemoculata Deharveng 1979CB80
  Isotomodella Martynova 1967DBL20

*Isotomodes productus (Axelson 1906) [=Isotoma producta; incl. Isotoma elongata Axelson 1903 non MacGillivray 1896]CB80

Metisotoma grandiceps (Reuter 1891) [=Isotoma grandiceps, *Cephalotoma grandiceps; incl. M. capitona Maynard 1951, Isotoma macnamarai Folsom 1918, *M. spiniseta Maynard 1951]CB80

*Pseudisotoma sensibilis (Tullberg 1876)CB80, SL06 [=Isotoma sensibilisCB80; incl. I. determinata MacGillivray 1896CB80, I. longidens Schäffer 1896S00, I. monstrosa Schäffer 1896S00, I. parva MacGillivray 1896CB80]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[CB80] Christiansen, K., & P. Bellinger. 1980. The Collembola of North America north of the Rio Grande: A taxonomic analysis vol. 2. Families Onychiuridae and Isotomidae. Grinnell College: Grinnell (Iowa).

[CB81] Christiansen, K., & P. Bellinger. 1981. The Collembola of North America north of the Rio Grande: A taxonomic analysis vol. 4. Families Neelidae and Sminthuridae; glossary; bibliography; index. Grinnell College: Grinnell (Iowa).

[CP02] Christiansen, K., & E. Pike. 2002. Cretaceous Collembola (Arthropoda, Hexapoda) from the Upper Cretaceous of Canada. Cretaceous Research 23: 165–188.

[DBL20] Deharveng, L., A. Bedos & M. Lukić. 2020. The genus Folsomides in the Hòn Chông hills, Vietnam (Collembola: Isotomidae). Raffles Bulletin of Zoology Supplement 35: 32–47.

[G91] Greenslade, P. J. 1991. Collembola (springtails). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers vol. 1 pp. 252–264. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[MC13] Majer, J. D., S. K. Callan, K. Edwards, N. R. Gunawardene & C. K. Taylor. 2013. Baseline survey of the terrestrial invertebrate fauna of Barrow Island. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 83: 13–112.

[SL06] Schulz, H.-J., & P. Lymberakis. 2006. First contribution to the knowledge of the Collembola fauna of the White Mountains (Lefká Óri) in west Crete (Insecta, Collembola, Isotomidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 86 (2): 229–234.

[S-AB08] Soto-Adames, F. N., J.-A. Barra, K. Christiansen & R. Jordana. 2008. Suprageneric classification of Collembola Entomobryomorpha. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 101 (3): 501–513.

[TM86] Thibaud, J.-M., & Z. Massoud. 1986. Insecta: Collembola. In: Botosaneanu, L. (ed.) Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) pp. 616–617. E. J. Brill/Dr W. Backhuys: Leiden.

[W67] Wise, K. A. J. 1967. Collembola (springtails). Antarctic Research Series 10: 123–148.

[W39] Womersley, H. 1939. Primitive Insects of South Australia: Silverfish, springtails, and their allies. South Australian Branch of the British Science Guild: Adelaide.

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