Ixodes (Ixodes)

Western black-legged tick Ixodes pacificus, copyright Kaldari.

Belongs within: Ixodes.

Ixodes subgenus Ixodes is the group of ticks including the primary vectors of Lyme disease, caused by the spirochaete Borrelia burgdorferi. These include the Palaearctic species I. ricinus and I. persulcatus, and the Nearctic spescies I. pacificus and I. dammini (Filippova 1991). Members of this subgenus are distinguished by the absence of spurs on the first segment of the palp (Kleinjan & Lane 2008). Ixodes ricinus, commonly referred to as the castor bean tick, is a relatively large species found in the western Palaearctic, with females reaching up to 11 mm when engorged.

Characters (from Kleinjan & Lane 2008): Palpal article I lacking anterior or posterior spurs; auriculae present; small external spur present on coxae I and II; alloscutal setae conspicuously long (often 0.08–0.10 mm), with typically seven marginal dorsal setae, two or more central dorsal setae, and one pair of dorsal supplementary setae; normally 3 setae on coxae III; anal groove usually evident; three posterior marginal festoons faint.

Ixodes Latreille 1795 (Ixodes)
|--*I. (I.) ricinus (Linnaeus 1758)B94 [=Acarus ricinusB94, Cynorhaestes ricinusCF77]
|--I. (I.) affinis Neumann 1899HRK91
|--I. (I.) brunneus Koch 1844HRK91
|--I. (I.) dentatus Marx 1899HRK91
|--I. (I.) frontalis (Panzer 1798)HRK91
|--I. (I.) gibbosus Nuttall 1916KNO99
|--I. (I.) hyatti Clifford, Hoogstraal & Kohls 1971F91
|--I. (I.) jellisoni Cooley & Kohls 1938F91
|--I. (I.) kashmiricus Pomerantzev 1946F91
|--I. (I.) kazakstani Olenev & Sorokoumov 1934F91
|--I. (I.) kuntzi Hoogstraal & Kohls 1965HRK91
|--I. (I.) montoyanus Cooley 1944HRK91
|--I. (I.) muris Bishopp & Smith 1937F91
|--I. (I.) neotomae Cooley 1944HRK91
|--I. (I.) nipponensis Kitaoka & Saito 1967F91
|--I. (I.) nuttallianus Schulzew 1930F91
|--I. (I.) pacificus Cooley & Kohls 1943HRK91
|--I. (I.) pararicinus Keirans & Clifford 1985KNO99
|--I. (I.) pavlovskyi Pomerantzev 1946F91
|--I. (I.) persulcatus Schulze 1930HRK91
|--I. (I.) pomerantzi Kohls 1957HRK91
|--I. (I.) reduvius (Linnaeus 1758)G20, L58 (see below for synonymy)
|--I. (I.) scapularis Say 1821F91 [=I. ricinus scapularisBS37; incl. I. dammini Spilman, Clifford et al. 1979CMK96, F91]
`--I. (I.) sinensis Teng 1977KNO99

Ixodes (Ixodes) reduvius (Linnaeus 1758)G20, L58 [=Acarus reduviusCF77, Cynorhaestes reduviusCF77; incl. Ricinus caninusCF77, C. hermanniCF77, Ixodes marmoratusCF77, C. megathyreusCF77, I. megathyreusR26, Pediculus ovinusCF77, Acarus ricinoidesCF77]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BS37] Bishopp, F. C., & C. N. Smith. 1937. A new species of Ixodes from Massachusetts. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 39 (6): 133–138.

[B94] Bock, W. J. 1994. History and nomenclature of avian family-group names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 222: 1–281.

[CF77] Canestrini, G., & F. Fanzago. 1877. Intorno agli Acari Italiani. Atti del Reale Istituto Veneto di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti, Serie 5, 4: 69–208, pls 2–7.

[CMK96] Chen, C., U. G. Munderloh & T. J. Kurtti. 1996. Cytogenetic, biochemical, and serological characteristics of tick (Ixodidae) cell lines. In: Mitchell, R., D. J. Horn, G. R. Needham & W. C. Welbourn (eds) Acarology IX vol. 1. Proceedings pp. 681–683. Ohio Biological Survey: Columbus (Ohio).

[F91] Filippova, N. A. 1991. A hypothesis for the palaeogenesis of the distribution of the main vectors for Lyme disease. In: Dusbábek, F., & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 109–118. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[HRK91] Homsher, P. J., R. G. Robbins & J. E. Keirans. 1991. Scanning electron microscopy of Haller’s organ for subgeneric systematic studies in the genus Ixodes. In: Dusbábek, F., & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 2 pp. 335–342. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[KNO99] Keirans, J. E., G. R. Needham & J. H. Oliver Jr. 1999. The Ixodes ricinus complex worldwide: diagnosis of the species in the complex, hosts and distribution. In: Needham, G. R., R. Mitchell, D. J. Horn & W. C. Welbourn (eds) Acarology IX vol. 2. Symposia pp. 341–347. Ohio Biological Survey: Columbus (Ohio).

Kleinjan, J. E., & R. S. Lane. 2008. Larval keys to the genera of Ixodidae (Acari) and species of Ixodes (Latreille) ticks established in California. Pan-Pacific Entomologist 84 (2): 121–142.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis revised 10th ed. vol. 1. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[R26] Risso, A. 1826. Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l’Europe méridionale et particulièrement de celles des environs de Nice et des Alpes maritimes vol. 5. F.-G. Levrault: Paris.

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