Julida

Megaphyllum unilineatum, copyright Zdeněk Hyan.

Belongs within: Eugnatha.
Contains: Cylindroiulus, Leptoiulus, Julus.

The Julida are a group of millipedes with pleura fused with terga, and a gnathochilarium with meeting stipes. Members of the families Paeromopodidae and Julidae bear distinct, fine longitudinal striation all around the metazonal segments; members of other families have such striation absent or on the lower sides of the segments only (Hoffman 1990).

Characters (from Hoffman 1990): Gnathochilarium with stipes broadly in contact medially, with small promental sclerite isolated in front of median commissure and larger transverse mental plate (or two plates) at base; sterna, pleura, and terga coalesced into rigid cylindrical rings, with pleural sclerites completely coalesced with lower ends of terga, no suture line remaining; segment 3 without legs.

<==Julida [Symphyognatha, Zygocheta]
    |  i. s.: Tachypodoiulus [incl. Ischiolobus Attems 1951]TKM93
    |           `--T. niger (Leach 1815) [incl. *Ischiolobus niger Attems 1951]TKM93
    |--Paeromopodidae [Californiulidae]H90
    |    |--PaeromopusH90
    |    |--CaliforniulusH90
    |    `--AprosphylosomaH90
    |--NemasomatidaeMG00
    |    |--TelsonemasomaH90
    |    |--Thalassisobates littoralisKAA-W00
    |    |--Nemasoma varicorne Koch 1847TKM93 [=Isobates varicornisKAA-W00]
    |    |--Chelojulus Enghoff 1982H00
    |    |    `--C. sculpturatusWA04
    |    `--Orinisobates Lohmander 1933MG00
    |         |--O. microthylax Enghoff 1985MG00
    |         `--O. sibiricus (Gulička 1963) [=Isobates sibiricus]MG00
    |--Blaniulidae [Isobatidae]TKM93
    |    |  i. s.: Nopoiulus kochii (Gervais 1847)KAA-W00
    |    |         ProteroiulusKAA-W00
    |    |           |--P. fuscus (Am Stein 1857) [=Blaniulus fuscus]TKM93
    |    |           `--P. varicornisKAA-W00
    |    |         BlaniulusTKM93
    |    |           |--B. guttulatus (Fabricius 1798)TKM93
    |    |           `--B. venustusA01
    |    |         Skleroprotopus Attems 1901 [Isobatini, Protoiulidae]A01
    |    |           `--*S. confucius Attems 1901A01
    |    |--+--VirgoiulusH90
    |    |  `--OkeanobatesH90
    |    `--ZosteractinidaeH90
    |         |--ZosteractisH90
    |         `--AmeractisH90
    |--ParajulidaeH90
    |    |  i. s.: ‘Julus’ telluster Scudder 1878RB93
    |    |--AliulusH90
    |    |--Aniulus bollmaniKAA-W00
    |    |--ArvechambusH90
    |    |--EthojulusH90
    |    |--GyniulusH90
    |    |--HakiulusH90
    |    |--IlliulusH90
    |    |--OkliulusH90
    |    |--OriulusH90
    |    |--PseudojulusH90
    |    |--PtyoiulusH90
    |    |--TeniulusH90
    |    |--UroblaniulusH90
    |    |--ApacheiulusH90
    |    |--GosiulusH90
    |    |--CodiulusH90
    |    |--BollmaniulusH90
    |    |--KarteroiulusH90
    |    |--MulaikiulusH90
    |    |--SaiulusH90
    |    |--SimiulusH90
    |    `--SpathiulusH90
    `--JulidaeKAA-W00
         |--Brachyiulus pusillusKAA-W00
         |--Allajulus nitidus (Verhoeff 1891)H90, TKM93 [=Cylindroiulus nitidusKAA-W00]
         |--CylindroiulusMG00
         |--Hypsoiulus alpivagus (Verhoeff 1897)TKM93
         |--LeptoiulusTKM93
         |--Pachypodoiulus eurypus (Attems 1895)TKM93
         |--Unciger foetidus (Koch 1838)TKM93
         |--Pachyiulus fuscipesA01
         |--Glyphiulus granulatusA01
         |--JulusKAA-W00
         |--Leptophyllum (Anuroleptophyllum Attems 1901)A01
         |    `--L. (*A.) caucasicum Attems 1901A01
         |--Pacifiiulus Mikhaljova 1982MG00
         |    `--P. amurensis (Gerstfeldt 1859) [incl. P. imbricatus]MG00
         |--OmmatoiulusTKM93
         |    |--O. morelettiDAF07
         |    `--O. sabulosus (Linnaeus 1758) [=Schizophyllum sabulosum]TKM93
         |--EnantiulusTKM93
         |    |--E. nanus (Latzel 1884) [=Julus nanus, Leptophyllum nanum, Metaleptophyllum nanum]TKM93
         |    `--E. pelidnus (Latzel 1884)TKM93
         |--OphyiulusKAA-W00
         |    |--O. nigrofuscus (Verhoeff 1894)TKM93
         |    |--O. pilosus (Newport 1842)TKM93
         |    `--‘Iulus (*Leucoiulus)’ tirolensis Verhoeff 1894 (n. d.)TKM93
         |--Sibiriulus Gulička 1972MG00
         |    |--S. altaicus (Gulička 1972) [=Cylindroiulus (Sibiriulus) altaicus]MG00
         |    |--S. dentiger (Gulička 1963) [=Cylindroiulus (Sibiriulus) dentiger]MG00
         |    `--S. multinicus Mikhaljova in Mikhaljova & Golovatch 2000MG00
         `--Megaphyllum Verhoeff 1894MG00
              |--M. austriacum (Latzel 1884) [=Julus austriacus]TKM93
              |--M. projectum (Verhoeff 1894) [=Chromatoiulus projectus]TKM93
              |--M. sjaelandicum (Meinert 1868)MG00
              `--M. unilineatum (Koch 1838) [=Chromatoiulus unilineatus]TKM93

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[A01] Attems, C. Graf. 1901. Myriopodák [Myriopoden]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 275–310. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[DAF07] Department of Agriculture and Food. 2007. Common Seasonal Pests. State of Western Australia.

[H00] Hannibal, J. T. 2000. Hexecontasoma, a new helminthomorph millipede (Hexecontasomatidae n. fam.) from the Mazon Creek, Illinois, fauna (Carboniferous, North America). Fragmenta Faunistica 43 (Suppl.): 19–35.

[H90] Hoffman, R. L. 1990. Diplopoda. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 835–860. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[KAA-W00] Kheirallah, A.-M., A.-N. H. Aly & N. Y. Abdel-Wahed. 2000. Anamorphosis and life-history of the millipede Nopoiulus kochii (Gervais, 1847), new for Egypt. Zoology in the Middle East 21: 159–168.

[MG00] Mikhaljova, E. V., & S. I. Golovatch. 2000. A review of the millipede fauna of Siberia (Diplopoda). Arthropoda Selecta 9: 103–118.

[RB93] Ross, A. J., & D. E. G. Briggs. 1993. Arthropoda (Euthycarcinoidea and Myriapoda). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 357–361. Chapman & Hall: London.

[TKM93] Thaler, K., B. Knoflach & E. Meyer. 1993. Fragmenta faunistica Tirolensia—X. Berichte des Naturwissenschaftlich-Medizinischen Vereins in Innsbruck 80: 311–325.

[WA04] Wilson, H. M., & L. I. Anderson. 2004. Morphology and taxonomy of Paleozoic millipedes (Diplopoda: Chilognatha: Archipolypoda) from Scotland. Journal of Paleontology 78 (1): 169–184.

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