Phoenician juniper Juniperus phoenicea, copyright Jean Tosti.

Belongs within: Cupressoideae.

Juniperus, junipers, is a Northern Hemisphere genus of conifers bearing fleshy, berry-like seed cones (Hickman 1993).

Characters (from Hickman 1993): Shrub or tree, generally dioecious. Bark thin, peeling in strips; young shoots four-angled to cylindric. Leaves opposite and four-ranked or whorled in threes and six-ranked, scale-like to less often awl- or needle-like. Pollen cones with two to six pollen sacs per scale. Seed cone 5–18 mm, more or less fleshy, berry-like, glaucous or not, dry or resinous, sweet, formed by fusion of scales, more or less spheric, surrounded at base by minute scale-like bracts, generally maturing in second year; scales 3–8, opposite or whorled in threes. Seeds 1–3(12) per cone, more or less flat, unwinged, often not angled, generally animal-dispersed over two years; cotyledons 2–6.

    |  i. s.: J. confertaG02
    |         J. ekmaniiJ87
    |         J. foetidissimaD30
    |         J. lyciaS99
    |         J. mexicanusBT87
    |         J. nanaC74
    |         J. pauliMM12
    |         J. utahensisS-TG10
    |--J. sect. JuniperusMM12
    |    |--+--J. deltoidesMM12
    |    |  `--J. oxycedrusMM12
    |    |       |--J. o. ssp. oxycedrusY98
    |    |       `--J. o. ssp. macrocarpaY98
    |    `--+--J. formosanaMM12
    |       `--+--J. rigidaMM12
    |          `--+--J. communisMM12 (see below for synonymy)
    |             |    |--J. c. ssp. communisH09
    |             |    |--J. c. ssp. alpinaH09
    |             |    `--J. c. var. depressaV72
    |             `--J. taxifoliaMM12
    `--+--J. (sect. Caryocedrus) drupaceaMM12
       `--J. sect. SabinaMM12
            |--+--J. phoenicea Linnaeus 1753MM12, PL04
            |  |--+--J. proceraMM12
            |  |  `--+--J. excelsaMM12
            |  |     `--+--J. thuriferaMM12
            |  |        `--+--J. chinensisMM12 [=Sabina chinensisLO98]
            |  |           |    |--J. c. var. chinensisMH98
            |  |           |    `--J. c. var. sargentiiMH98
            |  |           `--J. procumbensMM12
            |  `--+--J. microspermaMM12
            |     `--+--J. semiglobosaMM12
            |        `--+--J. sabinaMM12
            |           `--+--J. lucayanaMM12
            |              |--J. saxicolaMM12
            |              `--+--J. virginianaMM12
            |                 |--+--J. bermudianaMM12
            |                 |  `--J. graciliorMM12
            |                 `--+--J. blancoiMM12
            |                    |--J. horizontalisMM12
            |                    `--J. scopulorumMM12
            `--+--+--J. pseudosabinaMM12
               |  `--+--J. convalliumMM12
               |     |--J. indicaMM12
               |     |--J. pingiiMM12
               |     |--J. recurvaMM12
               |     |--J. squamataMM12
               |     |--J. tibeticaMM12
               |     `--+--J. przewalskiiMM12
               |        `--J. saltuariaMM12
               `--+--+--J. flaccidaMM12
                  |  `--J. monticolaMM12
                  `--+--+--J. occidentalisMM12
                     |  |    |--J. o. var. occidentalisH93
                     |  |    `--J. o. var. australisH93
                     |  `--J. osteospermaMM12
                     `--+--J. asheiMM12
                        |--J. californicaMM12
                        |--J. monospermaMM12
                        |--+--J. durangensisMM12
                        |  `--J. saltillensisMM12
                        `--+--J. gamboanaMM12
                           `--+--J. deppeanaMM12
                              |    |--J. d. var. deppeanaMM12
                              |    `--J. d. var. pachyphlaeaMM12
                              `--+--J. coahuilensisMM12
                                 `--+--J. angosturanaMM12
                                    |--J. comitanaMM12
                                    `--J. pinchotiiMM12

Juniperus communisMM12 [incl. J. communis var. jackiiH93, J. communis var. montanaH93, J. communis var. saxatilisH93]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BT87] Baker, E. W., & D. M. Tuttle. 1987. The false spider mites of Mexico (Tenuipalpidae: Acari). United States Department of Agriculture, Technical Bulletin 1706: 1–237.

[C74] Coineau, Y. 1974. Éléments pour une monographie morphologique, écologique et biologique des Caeculidae (Acariens). Mémoires du Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, nouvelle série, Série A, Zoologie 81: 1–299, 24 pls.

[D30] Druce, G. C. 1930. Account of a botanical tour in Cyprus. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of London 141: 50–52.

[G02] Gomez, B. 2002. A new species of Mirovia (Coniferales, Miroviaceae) from the Lower Cretaceous of the Iberian Ranges (Spain). Cretaceous Research 23: 761–773.

[H09] Heltmann, H. 2009. Der Königstein (Piatra Craiului), die Perle der Burzenländer Gebirge. Mauritiana 20 (3): 515–527.

[H93] Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press: Berkeley (California).

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum—Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1–136.

[LO98] Lack, H. W., & H. Ohba. 1998. Die Xylothek des Chikusai Kato. Willdenowia 28: 263–276.

[MM12] Mao, K., R. I. Milne, L. Zhang, Y. Peng, J. Liu, P. Thomas, R. R. Mill & S. S. Renner. 2012. Distribution of living Cupressaceae reflects the breakup of Pangea. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 109 (20): 7793–7798.

[MH98] Morikawa, H., A. Higaki, M. Nohno, M. Takahashi, M. Kamada, M. Nakata, G. Toyohara, Y. Okamura, K. Matsui, S. Kitani, K. Fujita, K. Irifune & N. Goshima. 1998. More than a 600-fold variation in nitrogen dioxide assimilation among 217 plant taxa. Plant, Cell and Environment 21: 180–190.

[PL04] Pohl, G., & I. Lenski. 2004. Zur Verbreitung und Vergesellschaftung von Pennisetum orientale Rich. in Nordeuböa (Griechenland) (Poaceae, Paniceae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 83 (2): 209–223.

[S99] Schousboe, M. 1799. Sur la véritable origine de la résine, connue sous le nom de sandarac, et sur celle de la gomme arabique. Bulletin des Sciences, par la Societé Philomathique de Paris 2 (31): 50–51.

[S-TG10] Simova-Tošić, D., D. Graora, R. Spasić & D. Smiljanić. 2010. Oligotrophus betheli Felt (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), a new species in the fauna of Europe. Arch. Biol. Sci. 62 (4): 1219–1221.

[V72] Voss, E. G. 1972. Michigan Flora. Part I. Gymnosperms and Monocots. Cranbrook Institute of Science and University of Michigan Herbarium.

[Y98] Yannitsaros, A. 1998. Additions to the flora of Kithira (Greece) I. Willdenowia 28: 77–94.

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