Junonia

Meadow argus Junonia villida, copyright J. J. Harrison.

Belongs within: Nymphalinae.

Junonia, arguses, is a widespread genus of butterflies with its highest diversity in the Old World tropics (Braby 2000).

Characters (from Braby 2000): Antenna about half length of costa of fore wing, with club short and broad; eye smooth; fore wing cell open, less than half length of wing; hind wing cell open.

<==Junonia Hübner 1819B00
    |--J. aonisWM66
    |--J. asteriaWM66
    |--J. coeniaKP19
    |--J. erigone (Cramer 1775)B00
    |    |--J. e. erigoneB00
    |    |--J. e. himeraB00
    |    `--J. e. walkeriB00
    |--J. hedonia (Linnaeus 1764)B00
    |    |--J. h. hedoniaB12
    |    `--J. h. zelima (Fabricius 1775)B12
    |--J. iphitaWWN03
    |--J. lemoniasWM66
    |--J. orithya (Linnaeus 1758)B00
    |    |--J. o. orithyaB12
    |    `--J. o. albicincta Butler 1875B12
    `--J. villida (Fabricius 1787)PP02
         |--J. v. villidaB00
         `--J. v. calybe (Godart 1819)B00

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[B00] Braby, M. F. 2000. Butterflies of Australia: their identification, biology and distribution vol. 2. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood (Victoria).

[B12] Braby, M. F. 2012. The butterflies of El Questro Wilderness Park, with remarks on the taxonomy of the Kimberley fauna, Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 27 (2): 161–175.

[KP19] Kawahara, A. Y., D. Plotkin, M. Espeland, K. Meusemann, E. F. A. Toussaint, A. Donath, F. Gimnich, P. B. Frandsen, A. Zwick, M. dos Reis, J. R. Barber, R. S. Peters, S. Liu, X. Zhou, C. Mayer, L. Podsiadlowski, C. Storer, J. E. Yack, B. Misof & J. W. Breinholt. 2019. Phylogenomics reveals the evolutionary timing and pattern of butterflies and moths. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 116 (45): 22657–22663.

[WWN03] Wahlberg, N., E. Weingartner & S. Nylin. 2003. Towards a better understanding of the higher systematics of Nymphalidae (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 28: 473–484.

[WM66] Wallace, A. R., & F. Moore. 1866. List of lepidopterous insects collected at Takow, Formosa, by Mr. R. Swinhoe. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 355–365.

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