Reconstruction of Kannemeyeria, copyright Dmitry Bogdanov.

Belongs within: Dicynodontia.

The Kannemeyeriiformes are a cosmopolitan clade of dicynodonts known from the Triassic, some members of which reached the size of a modern cow. Members of the clade are united by a markedly enlarged preacetabular expansion of the iliac blade, a distinctly offset caput femoris on the femur, and an olecranon ulnae formed by a separate ossification (Maisch 2000).

    |  i. s.: Dolichuranus Keyer 1973M00
    |         Azarifeneria Dutuit 1989 (n. d.)M00
    |         Calleonasus Kalandadze 1986 (n. d.)M00
    |         Edaxosaurus Kalandadze 1986 (n. d.)M00
    |         Elatosaurus Kalandadze 1986 (n. d.)M00
    |         Nasoplanites Surkov 1999M00
    |         Cristonasus Surkov 1999M00
    |         Parvobestiola Surkov 1999M00
    |         Planitorostris Surkov 1999M00
    |    |--Vinceria Bonaparte 1967M00
    |    |    `--V. andina Bonaparte 1967B93
    |    `--+--Rhinodicynodon Kalandadze 1970M00
    |       `--+--Shansiodon Yeh 1959M00
    |          `--Tetragonias Cruickshank 1967M00
    |               `--T. njalilusM00
       |    |--Rabidosaurus Kalandadze 1970M00
       |    |--Wadiasaurus Roy-Chowdhury 1970M00
       |    |    `--W. indicusM00
       |    |--Jachaleria Bonaparte 1971B93, M00
       |    |    `--J. colorata Bonaparte 1971B93
       |    `--Kannemeyeria Seeley 1908M00
       |         |--K. argentinensis Bonaparte 1966B93
       |         |--K. erithreaD07
       |         |--K. jenseniD07
       |         |--K. simocephalus (Weithofer 1888)B93
       |         `--K. wilsoni Broom 1937B93
       `--+--Dinodontosauridae [Dinodontosaurinae, Sinokannemeyeriini]M00
          |    |--Dinodontosaurus Romer 1943M00
          |    `--+--SinokannemeyeriinaeM00
          |       |    |--Parakannemeyeria Sun 1960M00
          |       |    `--Sinokannemeyeria Young 1937M00
          |       `--RechnisaurinaeM00
          |            |  i. s.: Shaanbeikannemeyeria Cheng 1980M00
          |            |--Rhadiodromus Efremov 1951 (see below for synonymy)M00
          |            `--+--Rechnisaurus Roy-Chowdhury 1970M00
          |               `--Sangusaurus Cox 1969M00
          |                    |--*S. edentatus Cox 1969C69
          |                    `--S. parringtoniiNB17
               |  i. s.: ChanariaC69
               |    |--Moghreberia Dutuit 1980M00
               |    |--Placerias Lucas 1904M00
               |    |    `--P. gigasM00
               |    `--Ischigualastia Cox 1962M00
               |         `--I. jenseniM00
                    |--Angonisaurus Cox & Li 1983M00
                    |    `--A. cruickshankiNB17
                    |--Stahleckeria von Huene 1925 [incl. Barysoma Cox 1965]M00
                    |    `--S. potens von Huene 1935 [incl. S. lenzii Romer & Price 1944, Barysoma lenzii]M00
                    `--Zambiasaurus Cox 1968M00
                         `--*Z. submersus Cox 1969C69

Rhadiodromus Efremov 1951 [incl. Rhinocerocephalus Vjushkov 1969, Uralokannemeyeria Danilov 1971]M00

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B93] Benton, M. J. 1993. Reptilia. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 681–715. Chapman & Hall: London.

[C69] Cox, C. B. 1969. Two new dicynodonts from the Triassic Ntawere Formation, Zambia. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History): Geology 17 (6): 255–294.

[D07] Dixon, D. 2007. The Complete Illustrated Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs & Prehistoric Creatures. Hermes House: London.

[M00] Maisch, M. W. 2000. Observations on Karoo and Gondwana vertebrates. Part 2: A new skull-reconstruction of Stahleckeria potens von Huene, 1935 (Dicynodontia, Middle Triassic) and a reconstruction of kannemeyeriiform phylogeny. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie Abhandlungen 220 (1): 127–152.

[NB17] Nesbitt, S. J., R. J. Butler, M. D. Ezcurra, P. M. Barrett, M. R. Stocker, K. D. Angielczyk, R. M. H. Smith, C. A. Sidor, G. Niedźwiedzki, A. G. Sennikov & A. J. Charig. 2017. The earliest bird-line archosaurs and the assembly of the dinosaur body plan. Nature 544: 484–487.


  1. The Wikipedia article on Sangusaurus is full of typos and similar mix-ups*, but nonetheless ahead of you in mentioning Sangusaurus edentatus and citing its description, which dates from 2018, along with other papers from SVP Memoir 17.

    * Probably not by the time you're going to see this, because I'm about to fix them all.

    1. Fixed it. Turns out S. edentatus is the type species, named in 1969, and S. parringtonii was named in 1986 but only described in any detail in the mentioned 2018 paper.

    2. Cheers, David. Seeing as I mostly took things from the Maisch (2000) paper, I'm not surprised I hadn't covered anything more recent. I've added the paper you referred to to my to-do list.

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