Kimulidae

 Minuella dimorpha, from Pérez González & Kury (2007).

Belongs within: Zalmoxoidea.

The Kimulidae are a small family of short-legged harvestmen found in northern South America.

Characters (from Pérez González & Kury 2007): Dorsal scutum bell-shaped with laterals of carapace convex; opisthosomal scutum widest at groove II and slightly constricted at area III or IV (Tegipiolus without any constriction); opisthosomal scutum outline in lateral view high, but somewhat flattened, not rounded convex. Ocularium prominent, granular, armed with a medial spiniform apophysis erect or curved or sinuous or inclined anteriorly. Mesotergum with four areas, area I longer than the others; mesotergal areas typically densely granular but unarmed; in a few species area I possesses a pair or transverse row of pointed tubercles. Lateral margin of scutum may have eularged spiniform tubercles, larger at area II. Free tergites with pointed corners or unpaired median apophyses. Free Sternites may bear varied armature, rows of spines or unpaired spines. Chelicerae with well-marked bulla, without remarkable armature. Pedipalps with setiferous tubercles never strongly developed; femur convex dorsally wlth ventral and dorsal scattered setiferous tubercles, group of two basal setiferous tubercles with basalmost tubercle always much reduced and always with mesal subdistal setiferous tubercle; patella with one mesal subdistal setiferous tubercle; tibia a little elongate, usually longer than tarsus, marginated with lateroectal and lateromesal rows of two to seven setiferous tubercles; tarsus with lateroectal and lateromesal rows of three to four setiferous tubercles. Legs III–IV without tarsal process and scopula; male coxa IV well developed, visible under scutum in dorsal view, roughly armed with heavy granules or acute tubercles; trochanter IV with characteristic ventral spine; femur IV very incrassate, with ventral row of strong spiniform apophyses; tibia and metatarsus IV roughly tuberculate with very enlarged and globose ventral tubercles at apices; tarsal formula 4(2):6–13(2):5:5–6 (except in Fudeci, 3:5:5:5). Penis with truncus cylindrical without well-defined ventral plate; pars distalis well-differentiated from pars basalis by one sulcus or the border between both easily recognisable by the upper limit of the pars basalis striate area; pars distalis laterally armed with three or four strong spatulate spines, in some species lanceolate, in others rounded, and ventrally with four small acute setae; Pars distalis with lamina ventralis surrounding capsula interna (conductors + stylus), apical extremes of the lamina ventralis enlarged, fingerlike, touching one another dorsally, the apical region of pars distalis commonly with two folds that can be ventrally entire or divided; two rigid conductors that can be lamelar or greatly developed and enlarged.

Kimulidae [Minuidae, Minuinae]
| i. s.: Fudeci González-Sponga 1998PGK07, KA-Z11
| `--*F. curvifemur González-Sponga 1998K03, KA-Z11
| Metakimula Avram 1973PGK07, K03
| `--*M. botosaneanui (Avram 1973) [=Kimula (Metakimula) botosaneanui]K03
|--+--Tegipiolus Roewer 1949P-GC17, K03
| | `--*T. pachypus Roewer 1949K03
| `--Relictopiolus Pérez-González, Ceccarelli et al. 2017P-GC17
| `--*R. galadriel Pérez-González, Ceccarelli et al. 2017P-GC17
`--+--Kimula Goodnight & Goodnight 1942P-GC17, PGK07
| |--*K. elongata Goodnight & Goodnight 1942K03
| |--K. banksi Šilhavý 1969K03
| |--K. cokendolpheri Pérez & Armas 2000KSP-G15
| |--K. goodnightiorum Šilhavý 1969K03
| |--K. levii Šilhavý 1969K03
| |--K. tuberculata Goodnight & Goodnight 1943K03
| `--K. turquinensis Šilhavý 1969K03
`--Minuella Roewer 1949P-GC17, PGK07 [incl. Minua Sørensen 1932 (nom. inv.)K18]
|--*M. dimorpha (Sørensen 1932) [=Minua dimorpha; incl. Minua insolens Sørensen 1932]K03
|--M. barloventensis González-Sponga 1987 [=Minua barloventensis]K03
|--M. choroniensis González-Sponga 1987 [=Minua choroniensis]K03
|--M. crassa González-Sponga 1987 [=Minua crassa]K03
|--M. denticulata González-Sponga 1987 [=Minua denticulata]K03
|--M. elias (Sørensen 1932) [=Minua elias]K03
|--M. guatopensis González-Sponga 1987 [=Minua guatopensis]K03
|--M. momoyana González-Sponga 1998 [=Minua momoyana]K03
|--M. montis González-Sponga 1987 [=Minua montis]K03
|--M. nebulae González-Sponga 1987 [=Minua nebulae]K03
|--M. parva González-Sponga 1987 [=Minua parva]K03
|--M. pinturelensis González-Sponga 1987 [=Minua pinturelensis]K03
|--M. punctiacuta González-Sponga 1987 [=Minua punctiacuta]K03
|--M. scabra (Sørensen 1932) [=*Minua scabra]K03
`--M. venefica González-Sponga 1987 [=Minua venefica]K03

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[K03] Kury, A. B. 2003. Annotated catalogue of the Laniatores of the New World (Arachnida, Opiliones). Revista Ibérica de Aracnología, volumen especial monográfico 1: 1–337.

[K18] Kury, A. B. 2018. Familial nomina in harvestmen (Arachnida, Opiliones). Bionomina 13: 1–27.

[KA-Z11] Kury, A. B., & M. A. Alonso-Zarazaga. 2011. Addenda and corrigenda to the “Annotated catalogue of the Laniatores of the New World (Arachnida, Opiliones)”. Zootaxa 3034: 47–68.

[KSP-G15] Kury, A. B., D. R. Souza & A. Pérez-González. 2015. World checklist of Opiliones species (Arachnida). Part 2: Laniatores—Samooidea, Zalmoxoidea and Grassatores incertae sedis. Biodiversity Data Journal 3: e6482.

[P-GC17] Pérez-González, A., F. S. Ceccarelli, B. G. O. Monte, D. N. Proud, M. B. DaSilva & M. E. Bichuette. 2017. Light from dark: a relictual troglobite reveals a broader ancestral distribution for kimulid harvestmen (Opiliones: Laniatores: Kimulidae) in South America. PLoS One 12 (11): e0187919.

[PGK07] Pérez González, A., & A. B. Kury. 2007. Kimulidae Pérez González, Kury, and Alonso-Zarazaga, new name. In: Pinto-da-Rocha, R., G. Machado & G. Giribet (eds) Harvestmen: The Biology of Opiliones pp. 207–209. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

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