Lachesilloidea

 Anomopsocus amabilis, photographed by Diane Young.

Belongs within: Homilopsocidea.
Contains: Ectopsocus, Ectopsocopsis, Lachesilla.

The Lachesilloidea is a clade of barklice characterised by their bare hindwing margins and narrowed external valves on the gonapophyses (Yoshizawa 2002). An areola postica is present on the fore wing of Lachesillidae but absent in Ectopsocidae (New & Lienhard 2007).

Characters (from Yoshizawa 2002): Small in size, about 1.5–4 mm in length. Body generally pale brown to blackish-brown. Mostly collected from dead-foliage, ground litter, bird’s nests, and from bark. Head with rounded vertex; postclypeus less bulged; epistomal suture sometimes reduced, always without broad internal ridge; anteclypeus usually not sclerotized. Pre-episternum of prothorax elongate. Metaepimeron of Ectopsocidae with ball-shaped lobe laterally. Forewing hyaline, sometimes with blackish-brown markings; pterostigma usually shallow; areola postica, if present, usually free from M, absent in Ectopsocidae, and fused with M in some Lachesiliidae. Hindwing veins and margin glabrous; Rs and M + Cu fused for long distance basally; Rs and M fused (Lachesillidae) or connected by crossvein (Ectopsocidae). Tarsi 2- or 3-(Eolachesilla) segmented; claws with or without (Ectopsocidae) preapical tooth; pulvillus broad or narrow. Abdomen without eversible vesicles ventrally. Male genitalia: variable; clunium, epiproct, paraproct, and hypandrium often with various processes. Phallosome variable; endophallus usually with sclerites but absent in some genera of Lachesillidae. Female genitalia: subgenital plate with (Ectopsocidae and some genera of Lachesillidae) or without distal projection extended from dorsal margin. Dorsal and ventral valves of gonapophyses often reduced; external valve narrowed, bearing long setae.

<==Lachesilloidea
    |--Ectopsocidae [Ectopsocinae]NL07
    |    |--EctopsocusNL07
    |    |--EctopsocopsisNL07
    |    |--EmpheriopsisP92
    |    |--Ectianoculus Li 1995L02a
    |    |    `--*E. baishanzuicus Li 1995L02a
    |    `--Estipulaceus Li 2002 [=Estippulaceae]L03
    |         |--*E. baidichengensis (Li 1997)L02b [=Ectopsocopsis baidichengensisL03, Ectopsocus baidichengensisL02a]
    |         |--E. biuncialis (Li 1995) [=Ectopsocus biuncialis]L02b
    |         |--E. crassiuncatus (Li 1997) [=Ectopsocopsis crassiuncatus]L02b
    |         |--E. daliensis Li 2002L03
    |         |--E. longivalvus Li 2002L02b
    |         |--E. mecophyllus Li 2002L02b
    |         |--E. multiserratus Li 2002L02b
    |         |--E. polyspilus Li 2002L02b
    |         |--E. pseudosalpinx (Li 1993) [=Ectopsocus pseudosalpinx]L02b
    |         |--E. subulifolius Li 2002L02b
    |         `--E. trimaculatus Li 2002L02b
    `--Lachesillidae [Pterodelidae]NL07
         |  i. s.: Mesolachesilla Mockford 1986L02b
         |         ArchaelachesisP92
         |--Cyclolachesillus Li 2002 [Cyclolachesillinae]L02b
         |    `--*C. ningxiaensis Li 2002L02b
         |--EolachesillinaeNL07
         |    |--Eolachesilla Badonnel 1967SN04 [EolachesilliniY02]
         |    |    `--E. chilensisY02
         |    `--GraphocaeciliiniM93
         |         |--Anomopsocus Roesler 1940 (see below for synonymy)M93
         |         |    `--*A. amabilis (Walsh 1862) [=Psocus amabilis, Pseudopsocus amabilis, Amapsocus amabilis]M93
         |         |--Prolachesilla Mockford & Sullivan 1986M93
         |         |    |--*P. mexicanaM93
         |         |    `--P. terricola Mockford & Sullivan 1986M93
         |         |--Nanolachesilla Mockford & Sullivan 1986M93
         |         |    |--*N. hirundo Mockford & Sullivan 1986M93
         |         |    |--N. chelata Mockford & Sullivan 1986M93
         |         |    |--N. hirundoidesM93
         |         |    `--N. nanciaeY02
         |         `--Graphocaecilius Enderlein 1900SN04
         |              |--G. citramansM74
         |              |--G. enderleiniB86
         |              |--G. incertus Badonnel 1986B86
         |              |--G. interpretatusM74
         |              |--G. luridusM74
         |              |--G. normalis Mockford 1974M74
         |              `--G. trypetoidesM74
         `--LachesillinaeNL07
              |--LachesillaNL07
              |--Nadleria Badonnel & Garcia Aldrete 1979NL07, SN04
              |--Ceratolachesillus Li 2002L02b
              |    `--*C. quinquecornus Li 2002L02b [=C. quinquecornususL03]
              |--Zangilachesilla Li 2002L02b
              |    `--*Z. apterostigma Li 2002L02b
              |--Homoeolachesilla Li 1995L02b
              |    |--*H. tibetana Li 1995L02b
              |    `--H. pinnulata Li 1995L02b
              `--Zonolachesillus Li 2002L02b
                   |--*Z. preductifascus Li 2002L02b
                   |--Z. ambipullus Li 2002L02b
                   |--Z. aterilineus Li 2002 [=Z. aterilienus]L03
                   |--Z. bicornis Li 2002L02b
                   |--Z. crassibasius Li 2002L02b
                   |--Z. exilicellus Li 2002L02b
                   |--Z. lomatomelus Li 2002L02b
                   |--Z. microplatyclatae (Li 1995)L03, L02b [=Lachesillus microplatycladaeL02b, Z. microplatycladae (l. c.)L03]
                   |--Z. oxyurus Li 2002L02b
                   |--Z. parvus Li 2002L02b
                   |--Z. platycladae (Li 1995) [=Lachesillus platycladae]L02b
                   |--Z. retimaculus Li 2002L02b
                   |--Z. spadiceilabius Li 2002L02b
                   `--Z. wenxianensis Li 2002L02b

Anomopsocus Roesler 1940 [incl. Amapsocus Sommerman 1944, Antipsocus Roesler 1940, Pseudopsocus Chapman 1930 non Kolbe 1882; Antipsocinae]M93

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[B86] Badonnel, A. 1986. Psocoptères de Colombie (Insecta, Psocoptera). Spixiana 9 (2): 179–223.

[L02a] Li F. 2002a. Psocoptera of China vol. 1. Science Press: Beijing.

[L02b] Li F. 2002b. Psocoptera of China vol. 2. Science Press: Beijing.

[L03] Lienhard, C. 2003. Nomenclatural amendments concerning Chinese Psocoptera (Insecta), with remarks on species richness. Revue Suisse de Zoologie 110 (4): 695–721.

[M74] Mockford, E. L. 1974. Records and descriptions of Cuban Psocoptera. Entomologica Americana 48 (2): 103–215.

[M93] Mockford, E. L. 1993. North American Psocoptera (Insecta). Sandhill Crane Press, Inc.

[NL07] New, T. R., & C. Lienhard. 2007. The Psocoptera of Tropical South-east Asia. Brill: Leiden.

[P92] Poinar, G. O., Jr. 1992. Life in Amber. Stanford University Press: Stanford.

[SN04] Schmidt, E. R., & T. R. New. 2004. A systematic and phylogenetic revision of the family Elipsocidae (Insecta: Psocoptera), with the erection of two new families: Lesneiidae and Sabulopsocidae. Invertebrate Systematics 18: 157–213.

[Y02] Yoshizawa, K. 2002. Phylogeny and higher classification of suborder Psocomorpha (Insecta: Psocodea: ‘Psocoptera’). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 136: 371–400.

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