Leuconostoc mesenteroides, copyright Fred Breidt.

Belongs within: Bacilli.
Contains: Streptococcus, Lactobacillus.

The Lactobacillales are a group of acid-tolerant, low-G+C bacteria, commonly found in decomposing plants and milk products, that obtain energy through the fermentation of carbohydrates to produce lactic acid.

    |  |    |--StreptococcusPHK96
    |  |    `--Lactococcus lactisGH01, PHK96 [=Streptococcus lactisPHK96]
    |  |         |--L. l. ssp. lactisBD03
    |  |         |--L. l. ssp. cremorisBD03
    |  |         `--L. l. ssp. diacetilactisPHK96
    |  `--EnterococcaceaeGH01
    |       |--Melissococcus plutonGH01, BB99
    |       |--TetragenococcusGH01
    |       |--Vagococcus salmoninarumGH01, MP95
    |       `--Enterococcus (ex Thiercelin & Jouhaud 1903) Schleifer & Kilpper-Bälz 1984IJSEM10
    |            |--E. faecalisGV03
    |            |--E. faeciumALS95
    |            |--E. gallinarumWK13
    |            |--E. hiraePF99
    |            `--E. villorum Vancanneyt et al. 2001JC08
       |    |--AgitococcusGH01
       |    |--AlloiococcusGH01
       |    |--DesemziaGH01
       |    |--DolosigranulumGH01
       |    |--LactosphaeraGH01
       |    |--TrichococcusGH01
       |    `--Carnobacterium Collins et al. 1987IJSEM10
       |         |--C. divergensLV02
       |         `--C. piscicolaPHK96
          |    |--LactobacillusPHK96
          |    `--PediococcusGH01
          |         |--P. cerevisiaePHK96
          |         `--P. pentosetaceusPHK96
               `--Leuconostoc van Tieghem 1878AL IJSEM10
                    |  i. s.: L. citreumWK13
                    |         L. cremorisPHK96
                    |         L. gasicomitatum Björkroth et al. 2001JC08
                    |--+--L. mesenteroidesPHK96
                    |  `--L. oenosPHK96
                    `--+--L. paramesenteroidesPHK96
                       `--‘Lactobacillus’ viridescensPHK96

*Type species of generic name indicated


[ALS95] Amann, R. I., W. Ludwig & K.-H. Schleifer. 1995. Phylogenetic identification and in situ detection of individual microbial cells without cultivation. Microbiological Reviews 59 (1): 143–169.

[BD03] Baele, M., L. A. Devriese, M. Vancanneyt, M., Vaneechoutte, C. Snauwaert, J. Swings & F. Haesebrouck. 2003. Emended description of Streptococcus ferus isolated from pigs and rats. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 53: 143–146.

[BB99] Ball, B. V., & W. A. Bruce. 1999. Varroa jacobsoni as a vetor of honey bee pathogens. In: Needham, G. R., R. Mitchell, D. J. Horn & W. C. Welbourn (eds) Acarology IX vol. 2. Symposia pp. 297–301. Ohio Biological Survey: Columbus (Ohio).

[GH01] Garrity, G. M., & J. G. Holt. 2001. The road map to the Manual. In: Boone, D. R., R. W. Castenholz & G. M. Garrity (eds) Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology 2nd ed. vol. 1. The Archaea and the Deeply Branching and Phototrophic Bacteria pp. 119–166. Springer.

[GV03] Goyache, J., A. I. Vela, M. D. Collins, C. Ballesteros, V. Briones, J. Moreno, P. Yorio, L. Domínguez, R. Hutson & J. F. Fernández-Garayzábal. 2003. Corynebacterium spheniscorum sp. nov., isolated from the cloacae of wild penguins. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 53: 43–46.

[IJSEM10] IJSEM. 2010. Validation list no. 132. List of new names and new combinations previously effectively, but not validly, published. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 60: 469–472.

[JC08] Judicial Commission of the International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes. 2008. Status of strains that contravene Rules 27 (3) and 30 of the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria. Opinion 81. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 58: 1755–1763.

[LV02] Leisner, J. J., M. Vancanneyt, K. Lefebvre, K. Vandemeulebroecke, B. Hoste, N. E. Vilalta, G. Rusul & J. Swings. 2002. Lactobacillus durianis sp. nov., isolated from an acid-fermented condiment (tempoyak) in Malaysia. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 52: 927–931.

[MP95] Maher, M., R. Palmer, F. Gannon & T. Smith. 1995. Relationship of a novel bacterial fish pathogen to Streptobacillus moniliformis and the fusobacteria group, based on 16S ribosomal RNA analysis. Systematic and Applied Microbiology 18: 79–84.

[PF99] Philippe, H., & P. Forterre. 1999. The rooting of the universal tree of life is not reliable. Journal of Molecular Evolution 49: 509–523.

[PHK96] Prescott, L. M., J. P. Harley & D. A. Klein. 1996. Microbiology 3rd ed. Wm. C. Brown Publishers: Dubuque (Iowa).

[WK13] Williams, K. P., & D. P. Kelly. 2013. Proposal for a new class within the phylum Proteobacteria, Acidithiobacillia classis nov., with the type order Acidithiobacillales, and emended description of the class Gammaproteobacteria. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 63 (8): 2901–2906.

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