Laelapidae

 Venter (a), dorsum (b) and mandibles (c) of female Gymnolaelaps canestrinii, from Schweizer (1961).

Belongs within: Gamasina.
Contains: Hirstionyssus (Hirstionyssus), Haemogamasus, Androlaelaps, Laelaps, Pneumolaelaps, Laelaspis, Myrmozercon, Hypoaspis, Pseudoparasitus, Cosmolaelaps, Stratiolaelaps.

The Laelapidae are a diverse group of mites including free-living parasites found in soil or animal nests, as well as parasites of mammals. They are divided between several subfamilies, some of which have been recognised as distinct families. These include the Hypoaspidinae, often collected in soil and litter though some are associates of other arthropods. The Melittiphidinae are found in close association with ants and bees and may be present in host nests in high numbers. The Laelapinae are primarily nest parasites of rodents with some species associated with bats or primates. The Haemogamasinae are a Holarctic group including both haematophagous and saprophagous species with some being obligate parasites of small mammals or birds (Lindquist et al. 2009). Haemogamasines are distinguished by a markedly hypertrichous dorsal shield, together transverse rows of denticles on the hypognathal groove (Evans & Till 1979). The Myonyssinae are associates of small mammals, with essentially edentate chelicerae bearing long and slender digits (Evans & Till 1979).

Characters (from Lindquist et al. 2009): Fixed cheliceral digit present; male chelicera with spermadactyl. Subcapitulum with internal malae usually well developed, with fimbriate lateral margins and equal to or longer than corniculi; three pairs of hypostomatic setae. Tritosternum well developed, with laciniae. Genu I with two anterolateral setae; tibia I with two anterolateral and usually two ventral setae, including av2; genu IV usually with two posterolateral setae, including pl2.

<==Laelapidae [Laelaptidae, Pseudoparasitidae]
    |--Alphalaelaps [Alphalaelapinae]LKW09
    |    `--A. aplodontiaeLKW09
    |--AcanthochelinaeLKW09
    |    |--Acanthochela chilensisLKW09
    |    `--Lukoschus maresiLKW09
    |--Myonyssus Tiraboschi 1904H98 [incl. Tetragonyssus Ewing 1923ET79; MyonyssinaeLKW09]
    |    |--*M. decumani Tiraboschi 1904ET79, H98
    |    |--M. gigasET79
    |    `--M. rossicusK91
    |--Mesolaelaps Hirst 1926 non Schulz 1906H98 [incl. Heterolaelaps Hirst 1926H98; MesolaelapinaeLKW09]
    |    |--M. anomalus (Hirst 1926) [=Laelaps anomalus]H98
    |    |--M. antipodianus (Hirst 1926) [=Laelaps antipodiana, Heterolaelaps antipodianum, H. antipodianus]H98
    |    |--M. australiensis (Hirst 1926) [=Laelaps australiensis, M. australiense]H98
    |    |--M. bandicoota (Womersley 1956) [=Hypoaspis bandicoota]H98
    |    |--M. lagotisinus (Hirst 1931) [=Laelaps lagotisinus; incl. M. thalacomys Womersley 1956]H98
    |    `--M. sminthopsis (Womersley 1954) [=Laelaps sminthopsis]H98
    |--HirstionyssinaeHY75
    |    |--Echinonyssus Hirst 1925FH93
    |    |    `--E. isabellinus (Oudemans 1913) [=Liponyssus isabellinus]FH93
    |    `--Hirstionyssus Fonseca 1948HY75
    |         |  i. s.: H. apodemiK91
    |         |         H. bisetosus Allred 1957M-PV-G01
    |         |         H. eusoricisK91
    |         |         H. isabellinusK91
    |         |         H. latiscutatus (de Meillon & Lavoipierre 1944)L55
    |         |         H. lunatus Strandtmann & Yunker 1966HY75
    |         |         H. microchelae Strandtmann & Yunker 1966HY75
    |         |         H. minutus Strandtmann & Yunker 1966HY75
    |         |         H. panamensis Strandtmann & Yunker 1966HY75
    |         `--H. (Hirstionyssus)HY75
    |--Haemogamasinae [Haemogamasidae, Liponyssidae, Liponyssinae]LKW09
    |    |--IschyropodaLKW09
    |    |--HaemogamasusH98
    |    |--BrevisternaLKW09
    |    |    |--B. morlani Standtmann & Allred 1956M-PV-G01
    |    |    `--B. utahensis (Ewing 1933)M-PV-G01
    |    |--Ichoronyssus Kolenati 1858E57 [incl. Plesiolaelaps Womersley 1957H98]
    |    |    |--*I. scutatus (Kol. 1856) [=Dermanissus scutatus]E57
    |    |    `--I. miniopteri (Zumpt & Patterson 1952) (see below for synonymy)H98
    |    `--Eulaelaps Berlese 1904ET79, FH93 [incl. Rhinolaelaps Fonseca 1960FH93]
    |         |--*E. stabularis (Koch 1839)ET79, FH93 (see below for synonymy)
    |         |--E. citellus Radford 1942FH93
    |         |--E. cricetuliLKW09
    |         |--E. novus Vitzthum 1924S61
    |         |--E. oudemansi Turk 1945H98
    |         |--E. pachypus (Hermann 1804) [=Laelaps pachypus]S61
    |         `--E. phalacrus Domrow 1960D60
    |--Laelapinae [Holostaspini, Laelaptinae]LKW09
    |    |--Hymenolaelaps princepsLKW09
    |    |--SteptolaelapsLKW09
    |    |--Gigantolaelaps wolffsohni (Oudemans 1910)L07
    |    |--AndrolaelapsLKW09
    |    |--LaelapsH98
    |    |--Mysolaelaps Fonseca 1935LKW09, FH93
    |    |    `--M. parvispinosus Fonseca 1936FH93
    |    |--Ondatralaelaps Evans & Till 1965ET79
    |    |    `--*O. multispinosus (Banks 1910)ET79, FH93 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--Neolaelaps Hirst 1926LKW09, H98
    |    |    |--N. spinosus (Berlese 1910) [=Leiognathus spinosus]H98
    |    |    `--N. vitzthumi Domrow 1961H98
    |    `--Holostaspis Kolenati 1858ET79, FH93
    |         |--*H. isotricha Kolenati 1858ET79
    |         |--H. acuta (Michael 1891) [=Laelaps acuta]FH93
    |         |--H. favosa Müller 1860FP60
    |         |--H. oophilaET79 [=Oolaelaps oophilusAL37]
    |         `--H. parvulusAL37
    |--MelittiphidinaeLKW09
    |    |--StigmatolaelapsLKW09
    |    |--XylocolaelapsLKW09
    |    |--MelittiphisoidesLKW09
    |    |--PneumolaelapsLKW09
    |    |--LaelaspisLKW09
    |    |--Melittiphis Berlese 1918H98
    |    |    `--*M. alvearius (Berlese 1895)ET79, H98 [=Laelaps (Iphis) alveariusET79]
    |    |--Bisternalis Hunter 1963LKW09, FH93
    |    |    |--B. hunteri Baker, Delfinado-Baker & Ordaz 1983FH93
    |    |    |--B. mexicanus Baker, Delfinado-Baker & Ordaz 1983FH93
    |    |    `--B. rettenmeyeri Hunter 1963FH93
    |    |--MyrmozerconLKW09
    |    `--Gymnolaelaps Berlese 1916LKW09, FH93 [incl. Laeliphis Hull 1925FH93]
    |         |--*G. myrmecophila (Berlese 1892) [=Laelaps myrmecophilus]ET79
    |         |--G. canestrinii Berlese 1902S61
    |         |--G. krantzi (Hunter 1967) [=Hypoaspis (Gymnolaelaps) krantzi]FH93
    |         |--G. mexicana (Banks 1915) [=Neoberlesia mexicana]FH93
    |         |--G. missouriensis (Ewing 1909) (see below for synonymy)FH93
    |         |--G. tonsilis (Karg 1989) [=Pseudoparasitus (Gymnolaelaps) tonsilis]FH93
    |         `--G. vitzthumi Womersley 1956FH93
    `--Hypoaspidinae [Hypoaspididae]S95
         |--HypoaspisS95
         |--Blaberolaelaps matthiesensisLKW09, S96
         |--Gromphadorholaelaps Till 1969LKW09, Ti69
         |    `--*G. schaeferi Till 1969Ti69
         |--PseudoparasitusS95
         |--CosmolaelapsLKW09
         |--Stevacarus Hunter 1970S96
         |--Hyletastes Gistel 1848E57, FH93 (see below for synonymy)
         |    `--*H. globulus (Koch 1839) [=Iphis globulus, Eumaeus globulus]FH93
         |--Hunteracarus Costa 1975S96
         |    `--H. womersleyi Costa 1975H98
         |--Ayersacarus Hunter 1964S96
         |    |--A. gelidus Hunter 1965SL71
         |    |--A. gressitti Hunter 1964SL71
         |    |--A. plumapilus Hunter 1964SL71
         |    `--A. strandtmanni Hunter 1964SL71
         |--Neohypoaspis Delfinado-Baker, Baker & Roubik 1983S96, FH93
         |    `--N. ampliseta Delfinado-Baker, Baker & Roubik 1983FH93
         |--Raymentia Womersley 1956LKW09, H98
         |    |--*R. anomala Womersley 1956WB02, H98
         |    |--R. eickwortiana Walter, Beard et al. 2002WB02
         |    `--R. walkeriana Walter, Beard et al. 2002WB02
         |--Alloparasitus Berlese 1920ET79, FH93 (see below for synonymy)
         |    |--*A. angulatus (Berlese 1920) [=Pseudoparasitus angulatus]S61
         |    |--‘Euandrolaelaps’ karawaiewiW88
         |    `--A. sardous (Berlese 1911) (see below for synonymy)FH93
         |--Dicrocheles Krantz & Khot 1962LKW09, H98
         |    |--*D. phalaenodectes (Treat 1954)KK62, FH93 [=Myrmonyssus phalaenodectesFH93]
         |    |--D. eothenes Treat 1970H98
         |    |--D. hippeoides Treat 1978FH93
         |    |--D. pelates Treat 1969Tr69
         |    `--D. scedastes Treat 1969FH93
         |--StratiolaelapsLKW09
         |--Coleolaelaps Berlese 1914LKW09, FH93
         |    |--C. bakeri Costa & Hunter 1970FH93
         |    |--C. brachysetus Costa & Hunter 1970FH93
         |    |--C. camini Costa & Hunter 1970FH93
         |    |--C. gracilis Costa & Hunter 1970FH93
         |    `--C. krantzi Costa & Hunter 1970FH93
         |--Ololaelaps Berlese 1904LKW09, H98 [incl. Pristolaelaps Womersley 1956H98]
         |    |--O. placidus (Banks 1895)FH93 (see below for synonymy)
         |    |--O. hemisphaerus Berlese 1916FH93 [=O. hemisphaeraB16]
         |    |--O. obovata (Womersley 1960) [=Pristolaelaps obovata]H98
         |    |--O. paratasmanicus Ryke 1963SL71
         |    |--O. placentulus (Berlese 1887) [=Laelaps placentula]FH93
         |    |--O. sellnicki Bregetova & Koroleva 1964FH93
         |    `--O. tasmanicus (Womersley 1956) [=Pristolaelaps tasmanicus, Pseudoparasitus tasmanicus]H98
         |--Cosmetolaelaps Womersley 1959S96
         |    |--C. desecti Costa 1981H98
         |    |--C. dolicacanthus (Canestrini 1884) [=Laelaps dolicacanthus, L. dolichacanthus (l. c.)]H98
         |    |--C. microsetus Costa 1981H98
         |    |--C. oligosetus Costa 1981H98
         |    |--C. reticulatus Costa 1981H98
         |    `--C. wallacei Costa 1981H98
         `--Geolaelaps Berlese 1924WO89 [=Gaeolaelaps Trägårdh 1952FH93]
              |--*G. aculeifer (Canestrini 1884)FH93 (see below for synonymy)
              |--G. angustusWO89
              |--G. corpolongusS96
              |--G. disjunctus (Hunter & Yeh 1969) [=Hypoaspis (Geolaelaps) disjuncta]FH93
              |--G. neaculeiferWO89
              |--G. nolli (Karg 1962) [=Hypoaspis nolli]FH93
              |--G. oreithyiae Walter & Oliver 1989FH93
              `--G. similisetae (Karg 1965) [=Hypoaspis similisetea]FH93
Laelapidae incertae sedis:
  Scissuralaelaps Womersley 1945H98
    |--S. innotensis Halliday 1993H98
    `--S. queenslandica Womersley 1945H98
  Ljunghia Oudemans 1932S95
    |--L. bristowi (Finnegan 1933)S95 [=Copriphis (Pelethiphis) bristowiWY88]
    |--L. hoggi Domrow 1975S95
    |--L. minor Fain 1989S95
    |--L. pulleini Womersley 1956S95 [=L. pulleineiF91]
    |    |--L. p. pulleiniF91
    |    `--L. p. aname Fain 1991F91
    |--L. rainbowi Domrow 1975S95
    `--L. selenocosmiae Oudemans 1932S95
  Dynastaspis Costa 1971FH93
    |--D. hercules (Costa 1976) [=Dynastes hercules non (Linnaeus 1758) (not preoc. as in dif. gen.)]FH93
    `--D. walhallae Costa 1971FH93
  Dycinetonyssus Moss & Funk 1965FH93
    `--D. hystricosus Moss & Funk 1965FH93
  Dynatochela Keegan 1950FH93
    `--D. prima Keegan 1950FH93
  Eumellitiphis Turk 1948FH93
    `--E. mellitus Turk 1948FH93
  Laelaspisella Marais & Loots 1969FH93
    `--L. foramenis (Karg 1989) [=Hypoaspis (Laelaspisella) foramenis]FH93
  Pililaelaps Radford 1947 [incl. Banksia Radford 1942 non Voigts & Oudemans 1905, Rad Baker & Wharton 1952]FH93
    `--P. longisetus (Banks 1910) [=Laelaps longiseta]FH93
  Zontia Turk 1948FH93
    `--Z. meliponensis Turk 1948FH93
  Phytojacobsonia Vitzthum 1925V25
    `--*P. irregularis Vitzthum 1925V25
  Cosmiphis bosschai (Oudemans 1901) [=Emeus bosschai]V25
  Andreacarus Radford 1953H98
    |--A. aegleis Domrow 1972H98
    |--A. anadema Domrow 1978H98
    |--A. radfordi Domrow 1963H98
    |--A. synoecus Domrow 1978H98
    `--A. tauffliebi Domrow 1963H98
  Berlesia Canestrini 1884H98
    `--B. rapax Canestrini 1884 [=Berlese rapace (l. c.)]H98
  Bewsiella Domrow 1958H98
    `--B. fledermaus Domrow 1958 [=B. fledermans (l. c.)]H98
  Chalaza Domrow 1990H98
    `--C. novena Domrow 1990H98
  Conolaelaps Womersley 1959H98
    `--C. coniferus (Canestrini 1884) [=Laelaps coniferus, L. conifer (l. c.)]H98
  Domrownyssus Evans & Till 1966H98
    `--D. dentatus (Domrow 1961) [=Pneumonyssus dentatus]H98
  Iphiolaelaps Womersley 1956H98
    `--I. myriapoda Womersley 1956H98
  Laelapsella Womersley 1955H98
    `--L. humi Womersley 1955 [=Hypoaspis humi, Laelaps humi]H98
  Myrmeciphis Hull 1923H98
    `--M. crawleianus Hull 1923H98
  Peramelaelaps Womersley 1956H98
    `--P. bandicoota Womersley 1956H98
  Rhodacantha Domrow 1979H98
    |--R. nelsoni Domrow 1979H98
    `--R. tenax Domrow 1979H98
  Thadeua Domrow 1977 [incl. Australolaelaps Womersley 1956 non Girault 1925]H98
    |--T. greeni (Domrow 1966) [=Australolaelaps greeni]H98
    |--T. mitchelli (Womersley 1956) [=Australolaelaps mitchelli]H98
    |--T. rosamondae (Domrow 1973) [=Australolaelaps rosamondae]H98
    |--T. serrata Domrow 1977H98
    `--T. validipes (Domrow 1955) [=Echinonyssus validipes, Australolaelaps validipes]H98
  Trichosurolaelaps Womersley 1956H98
    |--T. crassipes Womersley 1956 [=T. ocrassipes]H98
    |--T. dixous Domrow 1972 [=T. dixoa]H98
    |--T. emanuelae Domrow 1958M72
    |--T. fallax Domrow 1972H98
    |--T. harrisoni Domrow 1961H98
    |--T. marra Domrow 1972H98
    `--T. striatus Domrow 1958H98
  Laelaspoides ordwayae Eickwort 1966WB02, FH93 [=Pseudoparasitus ordwayaeFH93]
  Dyscinetonyssus hysticosusWB02
  Cyclothorax carcinicola von Frauenfeld 1868J60
  Aspidilaelaps Trägårdh 1949J60
    |--*A. mirabilis Trägårdh 1949J60
    `--A. pagurophilus (André 1937) [=Laelaps pagurophilus]J60

Alloparasitus Berlese 1920ET79, FH93 [incl. Euandrolaelaps Bregetova in Ghilarov 1977FH93, Halbertia Hull in Turk & Turk 1952FH93]

Alloparasitus sardous (Berlese 1911) [=Laelaps (Androlaelaps) sardous; incl. Hypoaspis laevis var. pilifer Oudemans 1912]FH93

*Eulaelaps stabularis (Koch 1839)ET79, FH93 [=Gamasus stabularisFH93, Laelaps stabularisS61; incl. L. oribatoides Michael 1892FH93, L. pedalis Banks 1910FH93, L. propheticus Banks 1910FH93]

*Geolaelaps aculeifer (Canestrini 1884)FH93 [=Laelaps aculeiferH98, Hypoaspis (Gaeolaelaps) aculeiferM83, L. (Eulaelaps) aculeiferS22; incl. Androlaelaps concisus Womersley 1956H98, Geolaelaps concisusH98, Hypoaspis consisa (l. c.)H98]

Gymnolaelaps missouriensis (Ewing 1909) [=Hyletastes missouriensis; incl. Laelaspis austriacus Sellnick in Jaus 1935, Pseudoparasitus obsoletus Berlese 1916]FH93

Hyletastes Gistel 1848E57, FH93 [=Eumaeus Koch 1842 (preoc.)FH93, Hyletastea (l. c.)FH93, Iphis Koch 1839 non Koch 1835FH93; Hyletastinae]

Ichoronyssus miniopteri (Zumpt & Patterson 1952) [=Neospinolaelaps miniopteri, Spinolaelaps miniopteri; incl. Plesiolaelaps miniopterus Womersley 1957, S. miniopterus]H98

Ololaelaps placidus (Banks 1895)FH93 [=Laelaps placidusFH93; incl. L. flavus Ewing 1909FH93, L. magnichela Ewing 1909FH93, Laelaps (Hypoaspis) tumidulusS61, S22, L. (H.) venetus Berlese 1904FH93, *Ololaelaps venetusET79]

*Ondatralaelaps multispinosus (Banks 1910)ET79, FH93 [=Laelaps multispinosusFH93; incl. La. parvanalis Willmann 1952FH93, Liponyssus spiniger Ewing & Stover 1915FH93]

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[AL37] André, M., & É. Lamy. 1937. Les Idées actuelles sur la Phylogénie des Acariens. Published by the author: Paris.

[B16] Berlese, A. 1916. Centuria terza di Acari nuovi. Redia 12: 289–338.

[D60] Domrow, R. 1960. Some Acarina Haemogamasidae from Malaya. Acarologia 2 (4): 434–441.

[E57] Evans, G. O. 1957. An introduction to the British Mesostigmata (Acarina) with keys to families and genera. Journal of the Linnean Society of London, Zoology 43: 203–259.

[ET79] Evans, G. O., & W. M. Till. 1979. Mesostigmatic mites of Britain and Ireland (Chelicerata: Acari-Parasitiformes). An introduction to their external morphology and classification. Transactions of the Zoological Society of London 35: 139–270.

[FH93] Farrier, M. H., & M. K. Hennessey. 1993. Soil-inhabiting and free-living Mesostigmata (Acari-Parasitiformes) from North America: an annotated checklist with bibliography and index. North Carolina Agricultural Research Service, North Carolina State University, Technical Bulletin 302: i–xvi, 1–408.

[FP60] Filipponi, A., & F. Pegazzano. 1960. Acari del genere Glyptholaspis nom. nov. pro Macrocheles (Macrocheles) Berl., 1918 (Mesostigmata, Macrochelidae). Redia 45: 133–171.

[H98] Halliday, R. B. 1998. Mites of Australia: A checklist and bibliography. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood.

[HY75] Herrin, C. S., & C. E. Yunker. 1975. Systematics of neotropical Hirstionyssus mites with special emphasis on Venezuela (Acarina: Mesostigmata). Brighman Young University Science Bulletin—Biological Series 20 (2): 93–127.

[J60] Johnston, D. E. 1960. Laelaptid mites associated with hermit crabs (Paguridea). The genera Aspidilaelaps and Cyclothorax (Acarina—Mesostigmata). Acarologia 2 (4): 442–445.

[K91] Kohn, M. 1991. Influence of the refuse dump biotopes on ecology of some gamasoid mites and ticks. In: Dusbábek, F., & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 199–204. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[KK62] Krantz, G. W., & N. S. Khot. 1962. A review of the family Otopheidomenidae Treat 1955 (Acarina: Mesostigmata). Acarologia 4 (4): 532–542.

[L07] Lareschi, M. 2007. Seasonal occurrence of ectoparasites associated with the water rat Scapteromys aquaticus (Muridae, Sigmodontinae) from Punta Lara, Argentina. In: Morales-Malacara, J. B., V. M. Behan-Pelletier, E. Ueckermann, T. M. Pérez, E. G. Estrada-Venegas & M. Badii (eds) Acarology XI: Proceedings of the International Congress pp. 233–240. Instituto de Biología and Faculdad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Sociedad Latinoamericana de Acarología: México.

[L55] Lavoipierre, M. M. J. 1955. On two new species and new records of Acarina mainly from the Ethiopian region. Parasitology 45 (1–2): 121–127.

[LKW09] Lindquist, E. E., G. W. Krantz & D. E. Walter. 2009. Order Mesostigmata. In: Krantz, G. W., & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology 3rd ed. pp. 124–232. Texas Tech University Press.

[M83] Martin, N. A. 1983. Miscellaneous observations on a pasture fauna: an annotated species list. DSIR Entomology Division Report 3: 1–98.

[M72] Monroe, R. 1972. Chelicerate type-specimens in the Queensland Museum. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 16 (2): 291–307.

[M-PV-G01] Montiel-Parra, G., G. A. Villegas-Guzman, M. Vargas & O. J. Polaco. 2001. Mites associated with nests of Neotoma albigula Hartley, 1894 (Rodentia: Muridae) in Durango, México. In: Halliday, R. B., D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff (eds) Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress pp. 586–593. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[S22] Schweizer, J. 1922. Beitrag zur Kenntnis der terrestrischen Milbenfauna der Schweiz. Verhandl. Naturf. Ges. Basel 33: 23–112, 4 pls.

[S61] Schweizer, J. 1961. Die Landmilben der Schweiz (Mittelland, Jura und Alpen): Parasitiformes Reuter, mit 246 Arten und Varietäten und 268 meist kombinierten Originalzeichnungen. Denkschriften der Schweizerischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft [Mémoires de la Société Helvétique des Sciences Naturelles] 84: i–vii, 1–207.

[SL71] Spain, A. V., & M. Luxton. 1971. Catalog and bibliography of the Acari of the New Zealand subregion. Pacific Insects Monograph 25: 179–226.

[S95] Strong, K. L. 1995. A new species of Hypoaspis (Acarina: Laelapidae) associated with funnel-web spiders (Araneae: Hexathelidae). Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 52: 219–223.

[S96] Strong, K. L. 1996. Sibling species of Hypoaspis Canestrini (Laelapidae) revealed by allozyme electrophoresis. In: Mitchell, R., D. J. Horn, G. R. Needham & W. C. Welbourn (eds) Acarology IX vol. 1. Proceedings pp. 425–428. Ohio Biological Survey: Columbus (Ohio).

[Ti69] Till, W. M. 1969. A new laelapine mite from the Madagascar hissing-cockroach, Gromphadorhina portentosa (Schaum). Acarologia 11 (3): 515–523.

[Tr69] Treat, A. E. 1969. The genus Dicrocheles: three new species and a reappraisal. Acarologia 11 (4): 630–656.

[V25] Vitzthum, H. 1925. Fauna sumatrensis. (Beitrag no. 5). Acarinae. Supplementa Entomologica 11: 1–79.

[W88] Walter, D. E. 1988. Nematophagy by soil arthropods from the shortgrass steppe, Chihuahuan desert and Rocky Mountains of the central United States. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 24: 307–316.

[WB02] Walter, D. E., J. J. Beard, K. L. Walker & K. Sparks. 2002. Of mites and bees: a review of mite-bee associations in Australia and a revision of Raymentia Womersley (Acari: Mesostigmata: Laelapidae), with the description of two new species of mites from Lasioglossum (Parasphecodes) spp. (Hymenoptera: Halictidae). Australian Journal of Entomology 41: 128–148.

[WO89] Walter, D. E., & J. H. Oliver Jr. 1989. Geolaelaps oreithyiae, n. sp. (Acari: Laelapidae), a thelytokous predator of arthropods and nematodes, and a discussion of clonal reproduction in the Mesostigmata. Acarologia 30 (4): 293–303.

[WY88] Welbourn, W. C., & O. P. Young. 1988. Mites parasitic on spiders, with a description of a new species of Eutrombidium (Acari, Eutrombidiidae). Journal of Arachnology 16: 373–385.

Leave a comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *