Sandpaper vine Petrea volubilis, copyright Kai Yan, Joseph Wong.

Belongs within: Lamiidae.
Contains: Avicennia, Calceolariaceae, Gesneriaceae, Plantaginaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Pedaliaceae, Acanthaceae, Phrymaceae, Lamiaceae, Orobanchaceae, Martyniaceae, Verbenaceae, Bignoniaceae, Lentibulariaceae, Ligustrum, Oleoideae, Jasminoideae.

The Lamiales are a large clade of flowering plants. The greatest diversity of species are herbs or shrubs but members also include large trees and parasites of other plants. Members include the Stilbaceae, a group of African trees and shrubs with funnel-shaped or tubular, often small flowers. The Oleaceae are a cosmopolitan group of woody plants generally bearing flowers with a minute calyx and fused petals (Hickman 1993).

Synapomorphies (from Cornoside, verbascosides, methyl- and oxygenated flavones present; eglandular hairs multicellular; leaves opposite; endosperm with micropylar haustorium; fruit a septicidal capsule; cotyledons incumbent; protein bodies in nuclei; mitochondrial coxII.i3 intron absent.

Lamiales (see below for synonymy)
    |  `--+--+--GesneriaceaeOP01
    |     |  `--Peltanthera floribundaAPG16, J00
    |     `--+--PlantaginaceaeOP01
    |        `--+--ScrophulariaceaeOP01
    |           |--StilbaceaeOP01
    |           |    |--Halleria lucidaOP01
    |           |    |--Nuxia [Nuxioideae]OP01
    |           |    |    `--N. congestaDVC08
    |           |    |--Stilbe [Stilboideae]OP01
    |           |    |    `--S. vestitaOP01
    |           |    `--Retzia [Retziaceae, Retzioideae]OP01
    |           |         `--R. capensisOP01
    |           `--+--+--PedaliaceaeOP01
    |              |  `--AcanthaceaeOP01
    |              |--+--PhrymaceaeOP01
    |              |  |--LamiaceaeOP01
    |              |  `--+--OrobanchaceaeOP01
    |              |     `--Paulownia [Paulowniaceae]OP01
    |              |          |--P. fargesiiS77
    |              |          `--P. tomentosaOP01 [incl. P. imperialisLO98]
    |              `--+--+--MartyniaceaeOP01
    |                 |  `--VerbenaceaeOP01
    |                 `--+--SchlegeliaceaeOP01
    |                    |    |--GibsoniothamnusT00
    |                    |    |--SynopsisT00
    |                    |    `--Schlegelia Miq. 1844L95 [incl. DermatocalyxS77]
    |                    |         |--S. brachyantha Griseb. 1866 (see below for synonymy)L95
    |                    |         `--S. parvifloraOP01
    |                    `--+--+--BignoniaceaeOP01
    |                       |  `--+--LentibulariaceaeT00
    |                       |     `--CyclocheilaceaeT00
    |                       |          |--CyclocheilonT00
    |                       |          `--AsepalumT00
    |                       `--PetreaceaeT00
    |                            |--CasseliaT00
    |                            |--LampayoT00
    |                            |--RecordiaT00
    |                            `--Petrea L. 1753 [Petreae]L95
    |                                 |--P. kohautiana Presl 1844L95
    |                                 `--P. volubilis L. 1753L95
    `--Oleaceae [Oleales, Olealium]OP01
         |  i. s.: MyxoporumH03
         |           |--M. nervosumH03
         |           `--M. ovatumH03
         |         LigustrumOP01
         |         Chionanthus L. 1753L95
         |           |--C. axilliflora (Griseb.) Stearn 1976 (see below for synonymy)L95
         |           |--C. compacta Sw. 1788 (see below for synonymy)L95
         |           |--C. domingensis Lam. 1791 (see below for synonymy)L95
         |           |--C. holdridgei (Camp & Monachino) Stearn 1976 [=Linociera holdridgei Camp & Monachino 1939]L95
         |           |--C. ligustrina (Sw.) Persoon 1805 (see below for synonymy)L95
         |           `--C. zeylanicusSR07
         |         Forestiera Poiret in Lamarck 1812L95
         |           |--F. eggersiana Krug & Urb. 1893L95
         |           |--F. pubescens [incl. F. neomexicana]H93
         |           |--F. rhamnifolia Griseb. 1866L95
         |           `--F. segregata (Jacq.) Krug & Urb. 1893 (see below for synonymy)L95
         |         OsmanthusMH98
         |           |--O. asiaticusMH98
         |           |--O. fragansSS72
         |           |--O. heterophyllus [incl. Olea aquifolium]LO98
         |           |--O. ilicifoliusMH98
         |           |--O. insularisHTN02
         |           `--O. suavisSN88
         |         Nestegis Raf. 1838ME70 [incl. Gymnelaea (Endl.) Spach 1839A61]
         |           |--N. apetala (Vahl) Johnson in Degener 1958ME70 (see below for synonymy)
         |           |--N. cunninghamii (Hooker) Johnson 1958ME70 (see below for synonymy)
         |           |--N. lanceolata (Hooker) Johnson 1958ME70 (see below for synonymy)
         |           `--N. montana (Hook. f.) Johnson 1958ME70 (see below for synonymy)
         |         SyringaP93
         |           |--S. emodiSN88
         |           |--S. oblataS00
         |           |--S. persicaC55
         |           `--S. vulgarisBR65
         |         Phillyrea latifolia Linnaeus 1753PL04 [incl. P. mediaY98]
         |         Haenianthus Griseb. 1861L95
         |           |--H. oblongatusJ87
         |           `--H. salicifoliusL95
         |                |--H. s. var. salicifoliusL95
         |                `--H. s. var. obovatus (Krug & Urb.) Knobl. 1933 [=H. obovatus Krug & Urb. 1892]L95
         |         Linociera ramifloraP03
         |         ForsythiaP93
         |         Oleiphyllum boreale Conwentz 1886CBH93
         |         ‘Retitricolporites’ oleoidesCBH93
         |         Pachyderma Blume 1826KC01
         |         Schrebera swietenioidesM72
Lamiales incertae sedis:
  Polypremum L. 1753L95 [PolypremaceaeOP01]
    `--P. procumbens L. 1753L95
  Plocosperma [incl. Lithophytum; Plocospermataceae, Plocospermeae]T00
    `--P. buxifoliumJ00
  Tetrachondra Petrie 1892A61 [TetrachondraceaeOP01]
    `--T. hamiltonii Petrie ex Oliver 1892 [=Tillaea hamiltonii Kirk in Hamilton 1885 (n. n.)]A61
  Trapella [Trapellaceae]T00
  Nesogenes [Nesogenaceae]T00
  CarlemanniaT00 [CarlemanniaceaeAPG16]
    `--C. griffithiiDD73
  ByblisT00 [ByblidaceaeAPG16]
    |--B. filifoliaLK14
    |--B. giganteaN70
    |--B. linifloraLK14
    `--B. roridaLK14
  ThomandersiaSV00 [ThomandersiaceaeAPG16]

Chionanthus axilliflora (Griseb.) Stearn 1976 [=Linociera axilliflora Griseb. 1862, Mayepea axilliflora (Griseb.) Krug & Urb. 1892]L95

Chionanthus compacta Sw. 1788 [incl. C. caribaeus Jacq. 1788, Linociera caribaea (Jacq.) Knobl. 1895, Mayepea caribaea (Jacq.) Kuntze 1891]L95

Chionanthus domingensis Lam. 1791 [=Linociera domingensis (Lam.) Knobl. 1895, Mayepea domingensis (Lam.) Krug & Urb. 1892; incl. L. latifolia Vahl 1804]L95

Chionanthus ligustrina (Sw.) Persoon 1805 [=Thouinia ligustrina Sw. 1788, Linociera ligustrina (Sw.) Sw. 1797, Mayepea ligustrina (Sw.) Kuntze 1891]L95

Forestiera segregata (Jacq.) Krug & Urb. 1893 [=Myrica segregata Jacq. 1788, Adelia segregata (Jacq.) Kuntze 1891; incl. F. cassinoides Poir. in Lam. 1812, F. porulosa jacquinii Eggers 1879, Adelia porulosa Michx. 1803]L95

Lamiales [Antirrhinidae, Bignoniales, Personales, Pseudosolanoideae, Rhinanthideae, Rhinanthoideae, Scrophulariales, Scrophularineae, Scrophularioideae]

Nestegis apetala (Vahl) Johnson in Degener 1958ME70 [=Olea apetala Vahl 1794A61, *Gymnelaea apetala (Vahl) Johnson 1957A61]

Nestegis cunninghamii (Hooker) Johnson 1958ME70 [=Olea cunninghamii Hooker 1854A61, Gymnelaea cunninghamii (Hooker) Johnson 1957ME70]

Nestegis lanceolata (Hooker) Johnson 1958ME70 [=Olea lanceolata Hooker 1854A61, Gymnelaea lanceolata (Hooker) Johnson 1957ME70]

Nestegis montana (Hooker) Johnson 1958ME70 [=Olea montana Hooker 1854A61, Gymnelaea montana (Hooker) Johnson 1957ME70]

Schlegelia brachyantha Griseb. 1866 [incl. S. brachyantha portoricensis Urb. 1899, S. portoricensis (Urb.) Britt. 1925]L95

*Type species of generic name indicated


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