Lamniformes

Grey nurse shark Carcharias taurus, photographed by J. W. H. Ferguson.

Belongs within: Selachimorpha.
Contains: Lamnidae.

The Lamniformes, lamnoid sharks, are a group of sharks with the gill slits anterior to the origin of the pectoral fins, in which the distal fin radials extend to the margins of the fin web. Most are large and active sharks, often found in shallow waters (Bond 1996). The basking shark Cetorhinus maximus is the second largest living shark species.

<==Lamniformes
    |--Odontaspididae [Carchariidae]B02a
    |    |--PseudomegachasmaVF21
    |    |--OdontaspisC84
    |    |    |--O. feroxC84
    |    |    |--O. noronhaiC84
    |    |    `--O. taurusCH97
    |    `--Carcharias Rafinesque 1810MW07, CDZ93 [incl. Eugomphodus Gill 1861CDZ93, Synodontaspis White 1931CDZ93]
    |         |--‘Synodontaspis’ acutissima [=Odontaspis acutissima]F91
    |         |--C. arenariusG75
    |         |--‘Synodontaspis’ cuspidata [=Odontaspis cuspidata; incl. S. denticulata]F91
    |         |--C. littoralisF15
    |         |--C. striatula Dalinkevicius 1935CDZ93
    |         `--C. taurus (Rafinesque 1810)B02a [=Eugomphodus taurusC84]
    `--+--Mitsukurinidae [Scapanorhynchidae]C84
       |    |--Scapanorhynchus owstoniW85
       |    |--Mitsukurina owstoniMW07, C84
       |    `--Anomotodon principalis Cappetta 1975CDZ93
       `--AlopiidaeCDZ93
            |--Paranomotodon angustidens (Reuss 1845)CDZ93
            `--Alopias Rafinesque 1810MW07, G62
                 |--A. caudatusG75
                 |--A. denticulatus Cappetta 1981CDZ93
                 |--A. exigua (Probst 1879)F91
                 |--A. greyiG75
                 |--A. latidens (Leriche 1908) [=Alopecias latidens]F91
                 |--A. pelagicusC84
                 |--A. superciliosusC84
                 |--‘Carcharinus’ vulpesG62
                 `--A. vulpinus (Bonnaterre 1788)B02d
Lamniformes incertae sedis:
  PseudocarchariasVF21 [PseudocarchariidaeB96]
    `--P. kamoharaiVF21
  CetorhinusB02c [CetorhinidaeC84]
    |--C. maximus (Gunnerus 1765)B02c
    `--C. parvus Leriche 1908CDZ93
  MegachasmaB96 [MegachasmidaeHMM12]
    `--M. pelagios Taylor, Compagno & Struhsaker 1983HMM12
  LamnidaeB02b
  Truyolsodontos Bernárdez 2018B18
    |--*T. estauni Bernárdez 2018B18
    `--T. magnus (Landemaine 1991) [=Protoscyliorhinus magnus]B18
  CretoxyrhinidaeCDZ93
    |--Cretolamna twiggsensis Case 1981CDZ93
    |--Cretoxyrhina mantelliVF21
    `--Protolamna Cappetta 1980CDZ93
         `--P. infracretacea Leriche 1910CDZ93
  OtodontidaeCDZ93
    |--Otodus obliquus Agassiz 1843CDZ93
    `--Parotodus benedeni (Le Hon 1871)CDZ93 [=Isurus benedeniF91]
  AnacoracidaeCDZ93
    |--Pseudocorax affinis (Münster in Agassiz 1843)CDZ93
    |--Paracorax jaekeli (Woodward 1895)CDZ93
    `--SqualicoraxCDZ93
         |--S. australis (Chapman 1909)CDZ93
         |--S. bassanii (Gemmellaro 1920)CDZ93
         |--S. kaupi (Arambourg 1952)CDZ93
         |--S. pristodontus (Agassiz 1843)CDZ93
         `--S. yangaensis (Dartevelle & Casier 1943)CDZ93
  Lamiostoma [Lamiostomatidae]F91
    `--L. gracilis (le Hon 1871)F91
  AquilolamnidaeVF21
    |--CretomantaVF21
    |--PlatylithophycusVF21
    `--Aquilolamna Vullo, Frey et al. 2021VF21
         `--*A. milarcae Vullo, Frey et al. 2021VF21

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[B18] Bernárdez, E. 2018. Truyolsodontos estauni n. gen., n. sp., Truyolsodontidae, a new family of lamniform sharks from the Cenomanian of northern Spain. Annales de Paléontologie 104: 175–181.

[B96] Bond, C. E. 1996. Biology of Fishes 2nd ed. Saunders College Publishing: Fort Worth.

[B02a] Branstetter, S. 2002a. Sand tiger sharks. Family Odontaspididae. In: Collette, B. B., & G. Klein-MacPhee (eds) Bigelow and Schroeder’s Fishes of the Gulf of Maine 3rd ed. pp. 25–27. Smithsonian Institute Press: Washington.

[B02b] Branstetter, S. 2002b. Mackerel sharks. Family Lamnidae. In: Collette, B. B., & G. Klein-MacPhee (eds) Bigelow and Schroeder’s Fishes of the Gulf of Maine 3rd ed. pp. 27–32. Smithsonian Institute Press: Washington.

[B02c] Branstetter, S. 2002c. Basking shark. Family Cetorhinidae. In: Collette, B. B., & G. Klein-MacPhee (eds) Bigelow and Schroeder’s Fishes of the Gulf of Maine 3rd ed. pp. 32–34. Smithsonian Institute Press: Washington.

[B02d] Branstetter, S. 2002d. Thresher sharks. Family Alopiidae. In: Collette, B. B., & G. Klein-MacPhee (eds) Bigelow and Schroeder’s Fishes of the Gulf of Maine 3rd ed. pp. 34–36. Smithsonian Institute Press: Washington.

[CDZ93] Cappetta, H., C. Duffin & J. Zidek. 1993. Chondrichthyes. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 593–609. Chapman & Hall: London.

[CH97] Castro, P., & M. E. Huber. 1997. Marine Biology 2nd ed. WCB McGraw-Hill: Boston.

[C84] Compagno, L. J. V. 1984. FAO Species Catalogue vol. 4. Sharks of the World: An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 2—Carcharhiniformes. United Nations Development Programme, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations: Rome.

[F15] Fowler, H. W. 1915. Cold-blooded vertebrates from Florida, the West Indies, Costa Rica, and eastern Brazil. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 67 (2): 244–269.

[F91] Freess, W. B. 1991. Beiträge zur Kenntnis von Fauna und Flora des marinen Mitteloligozäns bei Leipzig. Altenburger Naturwissenschaftliche Forschungen 6: 3–74.

[G62] Garrick, J. A. F. 1962. Reasons in favor of retaining the generic name Carcharhinus Blainville, and a proposal for identifying its type species as the Indo-Pacific black-tipped shark, C. melanopterus. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 75: 89–96.

[G75] Grant, E. M. 1975. Guide to Fishes. The Co-ordinator-General’s Department: Brisbane (Australia).

[HMM12] Human, B. A., S. M. Morrison & I. D. MacLeod. 2012. Is the megamouth shark susceptible to mega-distortion? Investigating the effects of twenty-two years of fixation and preservation on a large specimen of Megachasma pelagios (Chondrichthyes: Megachasmidae). Records of the Western Australian Museum 27 (1): 7–20.

[MW07] Mallatt, J., & C. J. Winchell. 2007. Ribosomal RNA genes and deuterostome phylogeny revisited: more cyclostomes, elasmobranchs, reptiles, and a brittle star. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 43: 1005–1022.

[VF21] Vullo, R., E. Frey, C. Ifrim, M. A. González González, E. S. Stinnesbeck & W. Stinnesbeck. 2021. Manta-like planktivorous sharks in Late Cretaceous oceans. Science 371: 1253–1256.

[W85] Williams, M. E. 1985. The “cladodont level” sharks of the Pennsylvanian Black Shales of central North America. Palaeontographica Abt. A 190: 83–158.

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