Languriinae

Hapalips prolixus, copyright Epitree.

Belongs within: Cucujoidea.

The Languriinae are a predominantly phytophagous group of beetles whose larvae are often stem borers. Subgroups include the Languriini, characterised by falcate mandibles and well-exposed antennal insertions (Leschen 2003).

Characters (from Leschen 2003): Subapical serrations of mandible absent; lacinia usually with three lacinial spines (occasionally two); lateral pockets absent on mentum; medial carina of mentum usually present; apical labial palpomere not securiform, width greater than or equal to its length; width of ligular membrane equal to or greater than prementum; transverse gular line usually present, usually as a deep groove; antennal insertion usually hidden in dorsal view; supraocular line absent or present usually to level above or beyond eye; transverse line absent on vertex of head; two (exceptionally one) stridulatory files present or absent on vertex of the head; pronotum not constricted at base; anterior angles of pronotum well or poorly developed; anterior margin of prosternum serrate or not; pronotal pits usually present; glandular ducts usually present below or in the lateral carina of pronotum and usually unitubulate; prosternal glandular ducts present or absent; procoxal cavity internally closed; procoxal cavity spartially or completely open behind, closure by prosternum and hypomeron or by hypomeron; edge of hypomeron usually smooth; mesoventral glandular ducts present or absent; mesepisternal fovea present or absent; mesometaventral articulation monocondylic; width of mesoventral process usually narrower than mesocoxa; submesocoxal lines present or absent; metaventral pores absent or present; metepisternal ctenidium present or absent; abdominal ventrites 1 and 2 usually free; abdominal glandular ducts usually present at disk and margin; abdominal calli usually present; metafurcal lamina usually present with median stalk of metendosternite well developed; form of spermatheca rounded or elongate; apical pit of spermatheca present or absent; accessory gland of spermatheca usually present; length of tarsomere 1 usually equal to, or sometimes longer than, tarsomere 2; tarsomere 4 reduced and hidden in ventral view; tarsal shelf of tarsomere 5 present or absent; empodium with one, two, or lacking setae; elytral punctation usually striate with scutellary striole present or absent; elytra usually narrowly explanate; radial cell and wedge cell of hind wing usually present.

<==Languriinae [Languriides]
    |  i. s.: Caenolanguria vulgarisLB91
    |--HapalipiniL03
    |    |--Bolerus minutusL03
    |    `--+--Truquiella gibbiferaL03
    |       `--Hapalips Reitter 1877 (see below for synonymy)L03
    |            |--*H. mexicanus Reitter 1877L03
    |            |--H. cribricollisL03
    |            |--H. eichelbaumiL03
    |            |--H. filumL03
    |            |--H. fuscus Reitter 1877 [=H. (*Cavophorus) fuscus]L03
    |            |--H. grouvelliL03
    |            |--H. investigatus Leschen & Wegrzynowicz 1998 [=*Isolanguria fusca Lea 1929 non Reitter 1877]L03
    |            |--H. nitidulusL03
    |            |--H. prolixus Sharp 1876 [=Xenoscelis prolixus, H. (Xenosceloides) prolixus]L03
    |            |--H. scottiL03
    |            |--*Loberina’ taprobanae Grouvelle 1902L03
    |            `--H. texanusLS02
    `--+--ThalliselliniL03
       |    |--+--AcryptophagusL03
       |    |  `--PseudhapalipsL03
       |    `--+--Platoberus latusL03
       |       `--Thallisella Crotch 1876L03
       |            `--T. crotchiL03
       `--LanguriiniL03
            |  i. s.: PromecolanguriaL03
            |           |--*P. dimidiata [=Languria dimidiata]G00
            |           |--‘Languria’ lyctoidesG00
            |           |--P. marshalli Gorham 1900G01
            |           |--P. natalensis Gorham 1901G01
            |           `--P. trogositoides Gorham 1900G01
            |         Acropteroxys Gorham 1887LS02
            |           `--A. gracilisLS02
            |         Langurites Motschulsky 1861LS02
            |           `--L. lineatus Laporte 1832LS02
            |--Microlanguria jansoniL03
            `--+--Crotchia honduranaL03
               `--+--+--Cladoxena Motschulsky 1866 [Cladoxenini]L03
                  |  |    `--C. maculataL03
                  |  `--ParacladoxenaL03
                  |       |--P. abundansL03
                  |       |--P. bipustulataL03
                  |       `--P. flavicornisL03
                  `--+--PenolanguriaL03
                     `--+--Neoloberolus Leschen 2003L03
                        |    `--*N. cursor (Grouvelle 1919) [=Loberolus cursor]L03
                        `--+--Dasydactylus Gorham 1887L03, LS02
                           |    `--D. cnici Schaeffer 1904LS02
                           `--+--NomotusL03
                              `--+--Anadastus harmandiL03
                                 `--Languria Latreille 1802L03 (see below for synonymy)
                                      |--L. bicolorG20
                                      |--L. mozardiL03
                                      |--L. ruficollisL02
                                      |--L. thoracica Boisduval 1835B35
                                      `--L. trifasciataL03

Hapalips Reitter 1877 [incl. Cavophorus Sen Gupta 1968, Isolanguria Lea 1929, Loberina Grouvelle 1902, Xenosceloides Sen Gupta 1968]L03

Languria Latreille 1802L03 [=Languiria Hope in Gray 1831LS02, Langura Rafinesque 1815LS02; incl. Janessa Chevrolat in Dejean 1837LS02]

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[B35] Boisduval, J. B. 1835. Voyage de Découvertes de l’Astrolabe. Exécuté par ordre du Roi, pendant les années 1826–1827–1828–1829, sous le commandement de M. J. Dumont d’Urville. Faune entomologique de l’océan Pacifique, avec l’illustration des insectes nouveaux recueillis pendant le voyage vol. 2. Coléoptères et autres ordres. J. Tastu: Paris.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[G00] Gorham, H. S. 1900. Descriptions of new genera and species of Coleoptera from South and West Africa, of the section Serricornia, and of the families Erotylidae, Endomychidae, and Languriidae. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 5: 71–94.

[G01] Gorham, H. S. 1901. Descriptions of genera and species of Coleoptera from South Africa (continued). Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 7: 349–365.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[LB91] Lawrence, J. F., & E. B. Britton. 1991. Coleoptera (beetles). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 543–683. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[L03] Leschen, R. A. B. 2003. Erotylidae (Insecta: Coleoptera: Cucujoidea): phylogeny and review. Fauna of New Zealand 47: 1–108.

[LS02] Leschen, R. A. B., & P. E. Skelley. 2002. Languriidae Wiedeman1823. In: Arnett, R. H., Jr, M. C. Thomas, P. E. Skelley & J. H. Frank (eds) American Beetles vol. 2. Polyphaga: Scarabaeoidea through Curculionoidea pp. 343–347. CRC Press.

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