Lanius

 Woodchat shrike Lanius senator, photographed by Lior Kislev.

Belongs within: Corvoidea.

The genus Lanius contains the northern shrikes of Eurasia, Africa and North America. Shrikes are predatory passerines with sharply hooked bills that feed on insects and small vertebrates, and are known for their habit of caching prey by pinning it on thorns. The yellow-billed shrike Corvinella corvina of tropical Africa is a distinctive species with a long tail and bright yellow beak.

<==Lanius Linnaeus 1758M02
    |--+--Corvinella Lesson 1831BKB15, B94 [Corvinellinae]
    |  |    `--C. corvinaBKB15
    |  `--+--L. dorsalisBKB15
    |     `--+--L. somalicus Hartlaub 1859BKB15, L03 [incl. L. antinorii mauritii Neumann 1907L03]
    |        `--+--+--L. meridionalisBKB15
    |           |  |    |--L. m. meridionalisL03
    |           |  |    `--L. m. leucopygos Ehrenberg 1833 [incl. L. leuconotus Brehm & Brehm in Brehm 1854]L03
    |           |  `--L. pallidirostris Cassin 1854BKB15, L03 (see below for synonymy)
    |           `--+--L. sphenocercusBKB15
    |              `--+--L. excubitor Linnaeus 1758BKB15, L03 (see below for synonymy)
    |                 `--L. ludovicianusBKB15
    |                      |--L. l. ludovicianusL03
    |                      `--L. l. mexicanus Brehm 1854L03
    `--+--+--+--L. collarisBKB15
       |  |  `--L. mackinnoniBKB15
       |  `--+--+--L. minor Gmelin 1788BKB15, L03 [incl. L. graecus Brehm 1855L03]
       |     |  `--L. senator Linnaeus 1758BKB15, L58
       |     |       |--L. s. senatorL03
       |     |       `--L. s. niloticus (Bonaparte 1853) [incl. L. paradoxus Brehm 1854]L03
       |     `--+--L. nubicusBKB15
       |        `--+--L. cabanisiBKB15
       |           `--L. excubitoroidesBKB15 [=L. excubitoriusL03]
       |                |--L. e. excubitoroidesL03
       |                `--L. e. intercedens Neumann 1905 [=L. excubitorius intercedens]L03
       `--+--L. tigrinusBKB15
          `--+--+--L. collurio Linnaeus 1758BKB15, L03 (see below for synonymy)
             |  `--L. isabellinus Ehrenberg 1833BKB15, L03 (see below for synonymy)
             `--+--L. schach Linnaeus 1758BKB15, L03
                |    |--L. s. schach [incl. L. s. hainanus Birckhead 1937]L03
                |    `--L. s. caniceps Blyth 1846 [incl. L. s. kathiawarensis Koelz 1950]L03
                `--+--L. cristatus Linnaeus 1758BKB15, L58
                   |    |--L. c. cristatusVP89
                   |    `--L. c. lucionensisVP89
                   `--+--L. bucephalus Temminck & Schlegel 1847BKB15, S05 [=Phoneus bucephalusS05]
                      `--L. tephronotusBKB15
                           |--L. t. tephronotusL03
                           `--L. t. lahulensis Koelz 1950 [incl. Collurio jounotus Hodgson 1844 (n. n.)]L03
Lanius incertae sedis:
  L. borealis Vieillot 1807 [incl. L. borealis americanus Bogdanow 1881]S05
    |--L. b. borealisS05
    `--L. b. invictusS05
  L. brachyurus Pallas 1777S05
  L. caerulescens Linnaeus 1758L58
  L. carnifex Linnaeus 1758L58
  L. collurioidesJT12
  L. erythronotusB66
  L. excubitorides Swainson 1831L03
  L. gubernator Hartlaub 1882L03
  L. jocosus Linnaeus 1758L58
  L. marwitziJT12
  L. miocaenus Milne-Edwards 1871M02
  L. nasutusS89
  L. newtoniJT12
  L. souzaeJT12
    |--L. s. souzaeL03
    `--L. s. burigi Chapin 1950L03
  L. validirostrisJT12
    |--L. v. validirostrisL03
    `--L. v. tertius Salomonsen 1953L03
  L. vittatusJT12
    |--L. v. vittatusL03
    `--L. v. nargianus Vaurie 1955L03

Lanius collurio Linnaeus 1758BKB15, L03 [incl. L. brachyuros Brehm 1842L03, L. brachiurosL03, L. gracilis Brehm 1842L03]

Lanius excubitor Linnaeus 1758BKB15, L03 [incl. L. major Brehm 1831 nec Gmelin 1788 nec Pallas 1831L03, L. rapax Brehm 1854L03]

Lanius isabellinus Ehrenberg 1833BKB15, L03 [incl. L. ruficaudus Brehm 1857L03, L. collurio speculigerus Taczanowski 1874L03]

Lanius pallidirostris Cassin 1854BKB15, L03 [=L. meridionalis pallidirostrisL03; incl. L. assimilis Brehm & Brehm in Brehm 1854L03]

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[B94] Bock, W. J. 1994. History and nomenclature of avian family-group names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 222: 1–281.

[B66] Bulger, G. E. 1866. List of birds observed at Wellington, Neilgherry Hills, about 6000 feet above the level of the sea, during the months of April and May, 1866. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 568–571.

[BKB15] Burleigh, J. G., R. T. Kimball & E. L. Braun. 2015. Building the avian tree of life using a large-scale, sparse supermatrix. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 53–63.

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444–448.

[L03] LeCroy, M. 2003. Type specimens of birds in the American Museum of Natural History. Part 5. Passeriformes: Alaudidae, Hirundinidae, Motacillidae, Campephagidae, Pycnonotidae, Irenidae, Laniidae, Vangidae, Bombycillidae, Dulidae, Cinclidae, Troglodytidae, and Mimidae. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 278: 1–156.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[M02] Mlíkovský, J. 2002. Cenozoic Birds of the World. Part 1: Europe. Ninox Press: Praha.

[S89] Salvadori, T. 1889. Viaggio di Leonardo Fea nella Birmania e nelle regioni vicine. XIX.—Uccelli raccolti nei Monti Carin a nord-est di Tounghoo, nel Pegù presso Rangoon e Tounghoo e nel Tenasserim presso Malewoon. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a, 7: 369–438.

[S05] Schalow, H. 1905. Die Vögel der Arktis. In: Römer, F., & F. Schaudinn (eds) Fauna Arctica. Eine Zusammenstellun der arktischen Tierformen, mit besonder Berücksichtigung des Spitzbergen-Gebietes auf Grund der Ergebnisse der Deutschen Expedition in das Nördliche Eismeer im Jahre 1898 vol. 4 pp. 79–288. Gustav Fischer: Jena.

[VP89] Viney, C., & K. Phillipps. 1989. Birds of Hong Kong 5th ed. Government Printer: Hong Kong.

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