Silver gulls Chroicocephalus novaehollandiae, copyright Donald Hobern.

Belongs within: Laridae.
Contains: Larus.

The Larinae, gulls, are relatively heavy-bodied birds with narrow, straight bills ending in a hooked tip, found worldwide.

<==Larinae [Larini]
    |  i. s.: Gabianus scoresbiiS70
    |--+--Creagrus furcatusBKB15
    |  `--+--Rhodostethia Macgillivray 1842BKB15, S05
    |     |    `--R. rosea (Macgillivray 1842) [=Larus roseus; incl. L. rossii Swainson & Richardson 1831]S05
    |     `--Hydrocoleus Kaup 1829BKB15, CC10
    |          `--*H. minutusCC10 [=Larus minutusJT12]
    `--+--+--Rissa Stephen 1826BKB15, M02
       |  |    |--R. brevirostrisBKB15 [=Larus brevirostrisFP64]
       |  |    `--R. tridactyla Linnaeus 1758BKB15, M02 (see below for synonymy)
       |  |         |--R. t. tridactylaS05
       |  |         `--R. t. pollicaris [=R. rissa pollicaris]S05
       |  `--+--Xema Leach 1819BKB15, B94 [Xemini]
       |     |    |--X. ridibundumS42
       |     |    `--X. sabini (Sabine 1819) [=Larus sabinii, Chema sabinii]S05
       |     `--Pagophila Kaup 1829BKB15, B94 [Pagophilini]
       |          `--P. eburnea Phipps 1774B94 (see below for synonymy)
       `--+--Saundersilarus saundersiBKB15 [=Larus saundersiJT12]
          `--+--Chroicocephalus Eyton 1836BKB15, CC10 (see below for synonymy)
             |    |--C. geneiBKB15 [=Larus geneiJT12; incl. L. gelastesCC10, *Gelastes gelastesCC10]
             |    `--+--C. philadelphia (Ord 1815)BKB15, CC10 (see below for synonymy)
             |       `--+--C. serranusBKB15 [=Larus serranusJT12]
             |          `--+--+--‘Larus’ brunnicephalusJT12
             |             |  `--C. maculipennisBKB15 [=Larus maculipennisJT12]
             |             `--+--+--C. bulleri (Hutton 1871)BKB15, CC10 (see below for synonymy)
             |                |  `--C. novaehollandiae (Stephens in Shaw 1826)BKB15, CC10 (see below for synonymy)
             |                |       |--C. n. novaehollandiaeCC10 (see below for synonymy)
             |                |       `--‘Larus’ n. forsteri (Mathews 1912)CC10 (see below for synonymy)
             |                `--+--C. ridibundus (Linnaeus 1758)BKB15, M02 (see below for synonymy)
             |                   `--+--C. hartlaubii (Bruch 1853)BKB15, CC10 [=Larus novaehollandiae hartlaubiiCC10]
             |                      `--+--C. cirrocephalusBKB15 [=Larus cirrocephalusJT12, Xema cirrocephalumF43]
             |                         `--C. scopulinus (Forster in Lichtenstein 1844)CC10 (see below for synonymy)
                |    |--+--L. modestusBKB15 [=Larus modestusJT12]
                |    |  `--L. scoresbiiBKB15
                |    `--+--L. pipixcan (Wagler 1831)BKB15, CC10 (see below for synonymy)
                |       `--+--L. atricilla (Linnaeus 1758)BKB15, L58 [=Larus atricillaJT12]
                |          `--‘Larus’ fuliginosusJT12
                        |  i. s.: ‘Larus’ leucophthalmusJT12
                        |--I. ichthyaetusBKB15 [=Larus ichthyaetusJT12]
                        `--+--I. relictusBKB15 [=Larus relictusJT12]
                           `--+--I. hemprichiiBKB15 [=Larus hemprichiiJT12]
                              `--+--I. audouiniiBKB15 [=Larus audouiniiJT12]
                                 `--I. melanocephalusBKB15 [=Larus melanocephalusJT12]

Chroicocephalus Eyton 1836BKB15, CC10 [incl. Astogavia Mathews 1944CC10, Bruchigavia Bonaparte 1857CC10, Gavia Boie 1822 non Forster 1788CC10, Gelastes Bonaparte 1853CC10]

Chroicocephalus bulleri (Hutton 1871)BKB15, CC10 [=Larus (Bruchigavia) bulleriCC10, Hydrocoleus bulleriCC10, Bruchigavia melanorhyncha Buller 1869 non Larus melanorhynchus Temminck & Laugier 1830CC10, B. (*Astogavia) melanorhynchaCC10, B. melanorhynchusCC10, Larus (Bruchigavia) melanorhynchaCC10]

Chroicocephalus novaehollandiae (Stephens in Shaw 1826)BKB15, CC10 [=Larus novaehollandiaeCC10, *Bruchigavia novaehollandiaeCC10; incl. Gavia andersonii Bruch 1853CC10, Larus jamesoni Wilson 1831CC10, Xema jamesoniiCC10]

Chroicocephalus novaehollandiae novaehollandiae (Stephens in Shaw 1826)CC10 [incl. Bruchigavia longirostris Masters 1877WS48, Gavia pomarre Bruch 1853CC10]

Chroicocephalus philadelphia (Ord 1815)BKB15, CC10 [=Larus philadelphiaJT12; incl. L. melanorhynchus Temminck & Laugier 1830CC10]

Chroicocephalus ridibundus (Linnaeus 1758)BKB15, M02 [=Larus ridibundusJT12, *Gavia ridibundusCC10; incl. Larus capistratusCC10, *Chroicocephalus capistratusCC10]

Chroicocephalus scopulinus (Forster in Lichtenstein 1844)CC10 [=Larus scopulinusJT12, Bruchigavia novaehollandiae scopulinusCC10, Gelastes scopulinusCC10, Larus novaehollandiae scopulinusCC10, Larus scopulorumCC10, Lestris scopulinusCC10; incl. Larus (Gelastes) andersonii Gray 1871 non Gavia andersonii Bruch 1853CC10, Bruchigavia novaehollandiae coincidens Mathews 1944CC10, Chroicocephalus schimperi Bruch 1853CC10, Larus schimperiCC10]

‘Larus’ novaehollandiae forsteri (Mathews 1912)CC10 [=Bruchigavia noveahollandiae forsteriWS48; incl. Gelastes gouldi Bonaparte 1854 (preoc.)WS48]

Leucophaeus pipixcan (Wagler 1831)BKB15, CC10 [=Larus pipixcanJT12; incl. Larus franklini Swainson & Richardson 1832CC10]

Pagophila eburnea Phipps 1774B94 [=Larus (Pagophila) eburneaS05, L. eburneusS05, L. albus Gunnerus 1767S05, Gavia albaB94; incl. L. brachytarsus Holböll 1843S05]

Rissa tridactyla Linnaeus 1758BKB15, M02 [=Chimonca tridactylaS05, Larus tridactylusM02, L. (Rissa) tridactylusS05; incl. Rissa tridactyla kotzebuei Nelson 1883S05, R. rissa Sharpe 1899S05]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B94] Bock, W. J. 1994. History and nomenclature of avian family-group names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 222: 1–281.

[BKB15] Burleigh, J. G., R. T. Kimball & E. L. Braun. 2015. Building the avian tree of life using a large-scale, sparse supermatrix. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 53–63.

[CC10] Checklist Committee (OSNZ). 2010. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand, Norfolk and Macquarie Islands, and the Ross Dependency, Antarctica 4th ed. Ornithological Society of New Zealand and Te Papa Press: Wellington.

[FP64] Fisher, J., & R. T. Peterson. 1964. The World of Birds: A comprehensive guide to general ornithology. Macdonald: London.

[F43] Fraser, L. 1843. On the collection of birds brought to England by Mr. Bridges. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 11: 108–121.

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444–448.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[M02] Mlíkovský, J. 2002. Cenozoic Birds of the World. Part 1: Europe. Ninox Press: Praha.

[S05] Schalow, H. 1905. Die Vögel der Arktis. In: Römer, F., & F. Schaudinn (eds) Fauna Arctica. Eine Zusammenstellun der arktischen Tierformen, mit besonder Berücksichtigung des Spitzbergen-Gebietes auf Grund der Ergebnisse der Deutschen Expedition in das Nördliche Eismeer im Jahre 1898 vol. 4 pp. 79–288. Gustav Fischer: Jena.

[S70] Schnell, G. D. 1970. A phenetic study of the suborder Lari (Aves) I. Methods and results of principal components analysis. Systematic Zoology 19 (1): 35–57.

[S42] Strickland, H. E. 1842. Account of the birds in the Chinese collection exhibited at Hyde Park Corner. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 10: 166–168.

[WS48] Whittell, H. M., & D. L. Serventy. 1948. A systematic list of the birds of Western Australia. Public Library, Museum and Art Gallery of Western Australia, Special Publication 1: 1–126.

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