Laurentobatrachia

Peacock tree frog Leptopelis vermiculatus, copyright Dawson.

Belongs within: Diplasiocoela.
Contains: Arthroleptinae, Hyperolius, Heterixalus.

The Laurentobatrachia are a clade of frogs found in sub-Saharan Africa and Madagascar.

Characters (from Frost et al. 2006): Larval m. levator manidbulae externus in two portion; commissura proximalis III absent; intercalary elements absent; external metatarsal tubercle poorly developed or absent; terminal phalanges claw-shaped.

Laurentobatrachia [Arthroleptoidae]
    |--ArthroleptidaeFG06
    |    |--Leptopelis Günther 1859FB17, FG06 [Leptopelinae, Leptopelini]
    |    |    |  i. s.: L. aubryiPB27
    |    |    |         L. mossambicusFG06
    |    |    |         L. parkeriFB17
    |    |    |--+--L. argenteusFG06
    |    |    |  `--L. brevirostrisPW11
    |    |    `--+--L. modestusPW11
    |    |       `--+--L. vermiculatusPW11
    |    |          `--+--L. natalensisPW11
    |    |             `--+--+--L. bocagiiPW11
    |    |                |  `--L. concolorPW11
    |    |                `--+--L. kivuensisPW11
    |    |                   `--L. palmatusPW11
    |    `--Astylosterninae [Astylosternidae, Astylosternini]PW11
    |         |--+--ArthroleptinaeFB17
    |         |  `--Leptodactylodon Andersson 1903FG06
    |         |       |--L. bicolorFG06
    |         |       `--L. ovatusFB17
    |         `--+--Nyctibates Boulenger 1904FB17, FG06
    |            |    `--N. corrugatusFG06
    |            `--+--Scotobleps Boulenger 1900FB17, FG06
    |               |    `--S. gabonicusFG06
    |               `--+--Trichobatrachus Boulenger 1900FG06
    |                  |    `--T. robustusFG06
    |                  `--Astylosternus Werner 1898FG06
    |                       |--A. diadematusPW11
    |                       `--+--A. batesiPW11
    |                          `--A. schioetziPW11
    `--Hyperoliidae [Hyperoliinae, Kassininae, Kassinini]FG06
         |  i. s.: Chlorolius Perret 1988FG06
         |         Arlequinus Perret 1988FG06
         |         Chrysobatrachus Laurent 1951FG06
         |--Cryptothylax Laurent & Combaz 1950PW11, FG06
         |    `--C. greshoffiiPW11
         `--+--+--Phlyctimantis Laurent & Combaz 1950PW11, FG06
            |  |    |  i. s.: P. boulengeriFB17
            |  |    |--P. leonardiPW11
            |  |    `--+--‘Kassina’ maculataPW11
            |  |       `--P. verrucosusPW11
            |  `--+--Kassina Girard 1853PW11, FG06
            |     |    |--K. senegalensisFG06
            |     |    `--K. wealiiWKW73
            |     `--+--Paracassina Peracca 1907FG06
            |        `--Semnodactylus Hoffman 1939FG06
            |             `--S. wealiiPW11
            `--+--+--Callixalus Laurent 1950FG06
               |  `--Acanthixalus Laurent 1944PW11, FG06
               |       |--A. sonjaePW11
               |       `--A. spinosusFG06
               `--+--Opisthothylax Perret 1966PW11, FG06
                  |    `--O. immaculatusFG06
                  `--+--HyperoliusPW11
                     `--+--Morerella cyanophthalmaPW11
                        `--+--+--HeterixalusFG06
                           |  `--Tachycnemis Fitzinger 1843PW11, FG06 [Tachycneminae]
                           |       `--T. seychellensisNW07
                           `--+--Kassinula Laurent 1940FG06
                              `--Afrixalus Laurent 1944PW11, FG06
                                   |  i. s.: A. pygmaeusFG06
                                   |         A. weidholziKF69
                                   |--+--A. knysnaePW11
                                   |  `--+--A. delicatusPW11
                                   |     `--A. stuhlmanniPW11
                                   `--+--A. fornasiniPW11
                                      `--+--A. laevisPW11
                                         `--+--A. dorsalisPW11
                                            `--A. paradorsalisPW11

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[FB17] Feng, Y.-J., D. C. Blackburn, D. Liang, D. M. Hillis, D. B. Wake, D. C. Cannatella & P. Zhang. 2017. Phylogenomics reveals rapid, simultaneous diversification of three major clades of Gondwanan frogs at the Cretaceous–Paleogene boundary. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 114 (29): E5864–E5870.

[FG06] Frost, D. R., T. Grant, J. Faivovich, R. H. Bain, A. Haas, C. F. B. Haddad, R. O. de Sá, A. Channing, M. Wilkinson, S. C. Donnellan, C. J. Raxworthy, J. A. Campbell, B. L. Blotto, P. Moler, R. C. Drewes, R. A. Nussbaum, J. D. Lynch, D. M. Green & W. C. Wheeler. 2006. The amphibian tree of life. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 297: 1–370.

[KF69] Kluge, A. G., & J. S. Farris. 1969. Quantitative phyletics and the evolution of anurans. Systematic Zoology 18 (1): 1–32.

[NW07] Nussbaum, R. A., & S.-H. Wu. 2007. Morphological assessments and phylogenetic relationships of the Seychellean frogs of the family Sooglossidae (Amphibia: Anura). Zoological Studies 46 (3): 322–335.

[PB27] Pilsbry, H. A., & J. Bequaert. 1927. The aquatic mollusks of the Belgian Congo, with a geographical and ecological account of Congo malacology. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 53 (2): 69–602, pls 10–77.

[PW11] Pyron, R. A., & J. J. Wiens. 2011. A large-scale phylogeny of Amphibia including over 2800 species, and a revised classification of extant frogs, salamanders, and caecilians. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 61: 543–583.

[WKW73] Wallace, D. G., M.-C. King & A. C. Wilson. 1973. Albumin differences among ranid frogs: taxonomic and phylogenetic implications. Systematic Zoology 22 (1): 1–13.

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