New Zealand rock lily Arthropodium cirratum, copyright Krzysztof Ziarnek, Kenraiz.

Belongs within: Petrosaviidae.
Contains: Laxmannia, Thysanotus.

The Laxmanniaceae are a clade of monocotyledonous plants united by molecular data. Most are large tufted herbs though members of the genus Cordyline may be trees up to ten metres in height (Eggli & Nyffeler 2020).

Characters (from Eggli & Nyffeler 2020): Monoecious or dioecious erect, mainly tufted herbs or shrubs, occasionally arborescent perennials; roots fibrous or thickened and fleshy; leaves spiral or distichous,  sheathing, lamina dorsiventral, cylindrical or linear to linear-lanceolate, margins entire; inflorescence erect, simple or compound spikes, racemes, bracteate umbels or cymes; flowers small to medium-sized; tepals 3 + 3, free or united, petaloid, scarious or fleshy; stamens 3 + 3 or 0 + 3; anthers dehiscing mainly by slits; ovary superior, syncarpous, 3-locular with several ovules per locule; style 1- to 3-lobed; fruit a berry, loculicidal capsule or nutlet; seeds few to numerous, testa thin, pale yellow to dark brown.

<==Laxmanniaceae [Eustrephaceae, Lomandraceae, Lomandroideae]EN20
    |--Sowerbaea Smith 1798–1799DS04, CC87
    |    |--*S. juncea Andrews 1800 [=Sowerbia juncea]CC87
    |    |--S. alliacea Muell. 1868CC87
    |    |--S. laxiflora Lindley 1840CC87
    |    |--S. multicaulis Pritzel in Diels & Pritzel 1904CC87
    |    `--S. subtilis Stewart 1976CC87
    `--+--Eustrephus latifoliusDS04 [=Luzuriaga latifoliaB78; incl. E. browneiB78, E. watsonianusB78]
       |    |--E. l. var. latifoliusB78
       |    `--E. l. var. angustifolia [=E. angustifolius, Luzuriaga angustifolia]B78
          `--Arthropodium Br. 1810DS04, ME70
               |--*A. milleflorum (DC.) Macbr. 1918CC87 (see below for synonymy)
               |--A. appendiculatum Avé-Lall. 1840 (n. d.)CC87
               |--A. candidum Raoul 1844 (see below for synonymy)ME70
               |--A. cirratum (Forst. f.) Br. 1822 [=Anthericum cirratum Forst. f. 1786]ME70
               |--A. curvipes Moore 1899CC87
               |--A. dyeri (Domin) Brittan 1987 [=Chamaescilla dyeri Domin 1912]CC87
               |--A. elongatum DC. 1813 (n. d.)CC87
               `--A. minus Br. 1810 (see below for synonymy)CC87
Laxmanniaceae incertae sedis:
    |--L. acicularisLK14
    |--L. banksiiLB91
    |--L. caespitosaB00
    |--L. collinaB00
    |--L. confertifoliaB00
    |--L. densifloraB00
    |--L. effusaB00
    |--L. fibrataB00
    |--L. filiformisB00
    |--L. glaucaB00
    |--L. hermaphroditaRL05
    |--L. hystrixB00
    |--L. maritimaSM06
    |--L. micranthaOS04
    |--L. multifloraB00
    |--L. nanaB00
    |--L. nigricansGK00
    |--L. obliquaB00
    |--L. preissiiRL05
    |--L. purpureaGK00
    |--L. sericeaRL05
    |--L. sonderiiRL05
    |--L. sororiaB00
    |--L. spicataB00
    |--L. suaveolensOS04
    `--L. tropicaLK14
  Cordyline Commerson ex Brown 1810 (see below for synonymy)EN20
    |--*C. cannifoliaEN20
    |--C. albicansT-W89
    |--C. australis (Forster) Hooker 1860EN20 (see below for synonymy)
    |--C. banksii Hooker 1860HE80 (see below for synonymy)
    |--C. ensifoliaT-W89
    |--C. forsteri Muell. 1878 (n. d.)ME70
    |--C. fruticosaB00 (see below for synonymy)
    |--C. × gibbingsae Carse 1929 [C. banksii × C. pumilio]ME70
    |--C. haageana Koch 1867 [incl. C. murchisoniae]B78
    |--C. hooibrenkeana Goepp 1855C06
    |--C. indivisa (Forster) Steudel 1840HE80 (see below for synonymy)
    |--C. kaspar Oliver 1956HE80
    |--C. × matthewsii Carse 1926 [C. australis × C. pumilio]ME70
    |--C. obtecta (Graham) Baker 1875ME70
    |--C. pumilio Hooker 1860HE80
    |--C. rubraC06
    |--C. strictaB78 (see below for synonymy)
    |--C. sturmii Col. 1883 (n. d.)ME70
    `--C. terminalis (Linnaeus) Kunth 1850ME70, HE80 (see below for synonymy)
  Chamaescilla Muell. ex Benth. 1878EN20, CC87
    |--*C. corymbosa (Br.) Muell. ex Benth. 1878 [=Caesia corymbosa Br. 1810]CC87
    |    |--C. c. var. corymbosa [incl. C. corymbosa var. alba Guilfoyle 1911, C. tasmanica Gand. 1919]CC87
    |    |--C. c. var. latifolia (Muell.) Henderson 1987 (see below for synonymy)CC87
    |    `--C. c. var. paradoxa (Endl.) Henderson 1987 (see below for synonymy)CC87
    `--C. spiralis (Endl.) Muell. ex Benth. 1878 [=Caesia spiralis Endl. in Lehmann 1846]CC87

Arthropodium candidum Raoul 1844 [incl. A. bulbosum Simpson 1952, A. ramulosum Colenso 1893, A. reflexum Colenso 1886]ME70

*Arthropodium milleflorum (DC.) Macbr. 1918CC87 [=Anthericum milleflorum DC. in Redouté 1804CC87; incl. Ar. lindleyi Kunth 1843CC87, An. paniculatum Haw. in Andrews 1804CC87, Ar. paniculatum (Haw.) Br. 1810CC87, Phalangium paniculatumB78, Anthericum pendulum Hornem. 1807CC87, Arthropodium pendulum (Delaroche) Sprengel 1825 (nom. illeg.)CC87, Phalangium pendulum (Hornem.) Delaroche in Redouté 1812CC87]

Arthropodium minus Br. 1810 [=Anthericum minus (Br.) Steudel 1821, Ar. paniculatum (Br.) Moore & Betche 1893; incl. Dichopogon humilis Kunth 1843]CC87

Chamaescilla corymbosa var. latifolia (Muell.) Henderson 1987 [=Caesia spiralis var. latifolia Muell. 1870; incl. Ca. versicolor Lindley 1840, Ca. corymbosa var. versicolor (Lindley) Baker 1876, Chamaescilla versicolor (Lindley) Ostenf. 1921, Ch. corymbosa var. versicolor Domin 1912]CC87

Chamaescilla corymbosa var. paradoxa (Endl.) Henderson 1987 [=Caesia paradoxa Endl. in Lehmann 1846, Ch. paradoxa (Endl.) Domin 1912]CC87

Cordyline Commerson ex Brown 1810 [incl. Calodracon Planchon 1850, Charlwoodia Sweet 1827, Cohnia Kunth 1850, Taetsia Medikus 1786 (nom. rej.)]EN20

Cordyline australis (Forster) Hooker 1860EN20 [=Dracaena australis Forster 1786ME70, Dracaenopsis australis (Forster) Planch. 1850–1851ME70; incl. Dracaenopsis calocoma Wendland 1859ME70, Cordyline calocoma (Wendland) Hort. ex Baker 1875ME70, C. lentiginosa Linden & Andre 1870ME70, C. superbiens Koch 1859ME70, C. veitchii Regel 1871ME70]

Cordyline banksii Hooker 1860HE80 [incl. C. beuckelaerii Koch 1865ME70, C. diffusa Col. 1883ME70, C. erythrorhachis Hort. ex Baker 1875C06]

Cordyline fruticosaB00 [=Convallaria fruticosaEN20; incl. Dracaena ferrea (nom. illeg.)EN20, *Taetsia ferrea Medikus 1786 (nom. illeg.)EN20]

Cordyline indivisa (Forster) Steudel 1840HE80 [=Dracaena indivisa Forster 1786ME70, Dracaenopsis indivisa (Forster) Planch. 1850–1851ME70; incl. Cordyline hectori Col. 1893ME70, C. hookeri Kirk 1874ME70]

Cordyline strictaB78 [incl. Cordyline angustifoliaB78, *Charlwoodia congesta Sweet 1827B78, EN20, B78, Co. congestaB78, Co. rigidifoliaB78]

Cordyline terminalis (Linnaeus) Kunth 1850ME70, HE80 [=Dracaena terminalisB78; incl. C. cheesemanii Kirk 1896C06, D. ferreaB78, C. hedychioidesB78, C. manners-suttoniaeB78, C. sepiariaB78]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B78] Bentham, G. 1878. Flora Australiensis: A description of the plants of the Australian Territory vol. 7. Roxburghiaceae to Filices. L. Reeve & Co.: London.

[B00] Braby, M. F. 2000. Butterflies of Australia: their identification, biology and distribution vol. 1. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood (Victoria).

[C06] Cheeseman, T. F. 1906. Manual of the New Zealand Flora. John Mackay, Government Printer: Wellington.

[CC87] Clifford, H. T., J. G. Conran, J. B. Williams, R. J. F. Henderson, H. J. Hewson, E. M. Watson, G. J. Keighery, D. M. Churchill, I. R. H. Telford, A. Thongpukdee, N. H. Brittan, A. S. George, W. T. Stearn & T. D. Macfarlane. 1987. Liliaceae. Flora of Australia 45: 148–419.

[DS04] Davis, J. I., D. W. Stevenson, G. Petersen, O. Seberg, L. M. Campbell, J. V. Freudenstein, D. H. Goldman, C. R. Hardy, F. A. Michelangeli, M. P. Simmons, C. D. Specht, F. Vergara-Silva & M. Gandolfo. 2004. A phylogeny of the monocots, as inferred from rbcL and atpA sequence variation, and a comparison of methods for calculating jackknife and bootstrap values. Systematic Botany 29 (3): 467–510.

[EN20] Eggli, U., & R. Nyffeler (eds) 2020. Illustrated Handbook of Succulent Plants: Monocotyledons 2nd ed. Springer.

[GK00] Gibson, N., & G. J. Keighery. 2000. Flora and vegetation of the Byenup-Muir reserve system, south-west Western Australia. CALMScience 3 (3): 323–402.

[HE80] Healy, A. J., & E. Edgar. 1980. Flora of New Zealand vol. 3. Adventive cyperaceous, petalous and spathaceous monocotyledons. P. D. Hasselberg, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[LB91] Lawrence, J. F., & E. B. Britton. 1991. Coleoptera (beetles). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 543–683. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[LK14] Lyons, M. N., G. J. Keighery, L. A. Gibson & T. Handasyde. 2014. Flora and vegetation communities of selected islands off the Kimberley coast of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 205–244.

[ME70] Moore, L. B., & E. Edgar. 1970. Flora of New Zealand vol. 2. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Monocotyledones except Gramineae. A. R. Shearer, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[OS04] Obbens, F. J., & L. W. Sage. 2004. Vegetation and flora of a diverse upland remnant of the Western Australian wheatbelt (Nature Reserve A21064). Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (1): 19–28.

[RL05] Rafferty, C., & B. B. Lamont. 2005. Selective feeding by macropods on vegetation regenerating following fire. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 88 (4): 155–165.

[SM06] Semeniuk, C. A., L. A. Milne, P. Ladd & V. Semeniuk. 2006. Pollen in the surface sediments of wetlands in the Becher Point area, southwestern Australia: a baseline for use in interpreting Holocene sequences. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 89 (1): 27–43.

[T-W89] Tenison-Woods, J. E. 1889. On the vegetation of Malaysia. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 4 (1): 9–106, pls 1–9.

Leave a comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *