Male Leiobunum rotundum, copyright Stu’s Images.

Belongs within: Sclerosomatidae.

Leiobunum has been recognised has a widespread Holarctic genus of generalised sclerosomatid harvestmen; however, recent phylogenetic analyses have indicated that this genus is widely polyphyletic. The type species is L. rotundum which is widespread in Europe; males of this species are solidly brick red whereas females are yellowish-red with a black saddle (Martens 1978).

Characters (from Roewer 1923): Eyemound as long as broad and high, dorsally smooth or finely granulate or denticulate. Anterior margin of carapace without a median protrusion; dorsum of carapace and opisthosoma usually unarmed; tergites 1–5 of opisthosoma sometimes forming a hard scutum in male. Coxae I–IV each with one anterior and one posterior marginal row of denticles, rarely only anterior margin of coxa I and posterior margin of coxa IV with denticle row. Supracheliceral lamellae usually smooth. Cheliceral segment I dorsally smooth. Pedipalp without apico-medial apophyses on patella and tibia (very rare incipient apophysis on patella). Legs very long and very thin; femur I usually much longer than body, very rarely only as long as body.

Leiobunum Koch 1839S08 [=Leiobunus Meade 1855C92, Liobunum Agassiz 1846CZ04]
|--*L. rotundum (Latreille 1798)S08 (see below for synonymy)
|--L. albigenum Sørensen 1911 [=Liobunum albigenum]R23
|--L. alvarezi Goodnight & Goodnight 1945GG45
|--L. anatolicum Roewer 1957K14
|--L. apenninicum (Martens 1969) [=Nelima apenninica]MS16
|--L. argentipalpe Prieto & Fernández 2007PW17
|--L. biseriatum Roewer 1910 [=Liobunum biseriatum]R23
|--L. bolivari Goodnight & Goodnight 1945GG46
|--L. bruchi Mello-Leitao 1933GG45
|--L. caporiaccoi Roewer 1957R57
|--L. coccineum Simon 1878 [=Liobunum coccineum]R23
|--L. consimile Banks 1900GG45 [=Liobunum consimileR23; incl. Li. dugesi Banks 1908GG45]
|--L. cretatum Crosby & Bishop 1924D34 [incl. L. lineatum Edgar 1962E90]
|--L. cupreum Simon 1878 [=Liobunum cupreum]R23
|--L. cypricum Roewer 1957R57
|--L. davisi Roewer 1952CZ04
|--L. defectivum Rambla 1959PW17
|--L. denticulatum Banks 1900GG46 [=Liobunum denticulatumR23]
|--L. depressum Davis 1934D34
|--L. desertum Goodnight & Goodnight 1944GG45
|--L. dromedarium Cambridge 1904GG46 [=Liobunum dromedariumR23]
|--L. ephippiatum Roewer 1910D34 [=Liobunum ephippiatumR23]
|--L. escondidum Chamberlin 1925GG46
|--L. fuscum Roewer 1910 [=Liobunum fuscum]R23
|--L. ghigii Di Caporiacco 1929K14
|--L. gracile Thorell 1876 (see below for synonymy)MS16
|--L. granulosum Prieto & Fernández 2007PW17
|--L. guerreroensis Goodnight & Goodnight 1946GG46
|--L. hedini Roewer 1936R57
|--L. heinrichi Roewer 1957R57
|--L. hongkongium Roewer 1957R57
|--L. incantaturbs Prieto & Wijnhoven 2017PW17
|--L. insignitum Roewer 1910 [=Liobunum insignitum]R23
|--L. insulare Roewer 1957R57
|--L. ischionotatum (Dugès 1884) (see below for synonymy)R23
| |--L. i. ischionotatumR23
| `--L. i. luteovittatum Roewer 1912 [=Liobunum luteovittatum]R23
|--L. leiopenis Davis 1934T85, D34 [=L. flavum leiopenisD34]
|--L. levantinum Prieto & Fernández 2007PW17
|--L. limbatum Koch 1861N05 (see below for synonymy)
|--L. lindbergi Roewer 1959K14
|--L. longipes Menge 1854PP19 [=L. saparum Menge in Koch & Berendt 1854 (n. n.)D07; incl. L. inclusum Roewer 1939S02]
|--L. lusitanicum Roewer 1923 [=Liobunum lusitanicum]R23
|--L. marmoratum Cambridge 1904 [=Liobunum marmoratum]R23
|--L. mesopunctatum Goodnight & Goodnight 1942GG42
|--L. metallicum Roewer 1932R57
|--L. mexicanum Banks 1898 [=Liobunum mexicanum]R23
|--L. mirum Roewer 1957R57
|--L. nigrigenum Goodnight & Goodnight 1945GG45
|--L. nigripalpe Simon 1889MS16 [=Liobunum nigripalpeM78, Nelima nigripalpisM78, Nelimus (Liobunum) nigripalpisD04]
|--L. nycticorpum Goodnight & Goodnight 1942GG46
|--L. oregonense Goodnight & Goodnight 1943GG43
|--L. religiosum Simon 1879 [=Liobunum religiosum, Nelima religiosa]M78
|--L. roseum Koch 1839 [=Liobunum roseum]M78
|--L. rumelicum Šilhavý 1965N05
|--L. rupestre (Herbst 1799)K14 (see below for synonymy)
|--L. seriatum Simon 1878K14 [=Liobunum seriatumR23]
|--‘Lejobunum’ (l. c.) seriepunctatum Doleschall 1852 (n. d.)R23
|--L. socialissimum Koch 1873 [=Liobunum socialissimum]R23
|--L. subalpinum Komposch 1998MS16
|--L. supracheliceralis Roewer 1957R57
|--L. trimaculatum Goodnight & Goodnight 1943GG43
|--L. veracruzensisHT12
|--L. viridorsum Goodnight & Goodnight 1942GG42
`--L. zimmermani Roewer 1952CZ04

Nomen nudum: Leiobunum luteumTM00

Leiobunum gracile Thorell 1876 [=Liobunum gracile, Nelima gracilis; incl. Li. laeve Thorell 1876, Nelima laevis, N. melanogranulata Morin 1931 (n. n.), Liobunum norvegicum Strand 1900, N. norvegica, Li. norwegicum (l. c.), N. norwegica (l. c.), Leiobunum tisciae Avram 1968]MS16

Leiobunum ischionotatum (Dugès 1884) [=Opilio ischionotatus, Liobunum ischionotatus; incl. Egaenus mexicanus Becker 1886 non Leiobunum mexicanum Banks 1898]R23

Leiobunum limbatum Koch 1861N05 [=Liobunum limbatumD04, Liobunus limbatusD04; incl. Liobunum limbatum var. fischeri Heller 1903D04, Liobunum hassiae Müller 1914D04, Leiobunum hassiaeR23, Liobunum purpurissatum Koch 1869D04]

*Leiobunum rotundum (Latreille 1798)S08 [=Phalangium rotundumS08, *Leiobunus rotundusC92, *Liobunum rotundumC92; incl. Phalangium decemmaculatum Razoumowsky 1789D04, Opilio fasciatus Herbst 1798D04, Li. fasciatumD04, Phalangium filipes Lucas 1847D04, Opilio hemisphaericus Herbst 1799D04, P. hemisphaericumD04, P. longipes Hahn 1834D04, Cerastoma longipesR12, P. rufum Hermann 1804D04, Leiobunum rufumD04]

Leiobunum rupestre (Herbst 1799)K14 [=Opilio rupestrisD04, Liobunum rupestreD04, Liobunus rupestrisD04; incl. Phalangium annulatum Hermann 1804 non Olivier 1791D04, Leiobunum bicolor Koch 1848D04, Liobunum glabrum Koch 1869MS16, Nelima glabraMS16, Leiobunum ovale Koch 1848MS16]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[CZ04] Cokendolpher, J. C., & K. R. Zeiders. 2004. Clarence Moores Weed (1864–1947) and notes on his species of Opiliones (Arachnida). Occasional Papers Museum of Texas Tech University 237: 1–14.

[C92] Crawford, R. L. 1992. Catalogue of the genera and type species of the harvestman superfamily Phalangioidea (Arachnida). Burke Museum Contributions in Anthropology and Natural History 8: 1–60.

[D34] Davis, N. W. 1934. A revision of the genus Leiobunum (Opiliones) of the United States. American Midland Naturalist 15 (6): 662–705.

[D04] Delfosse, E. 2004. Catalogue préliminaire des Opilions de France métropolitaine (Arachnida Opiliones). Bulletin de Phyllie 20: 34–58.

[D07] Dunlop, J. A. 2007. Paleontology. In: Pinto-da-Rocha, R., G. Machado & G. Giribet (eds) Harvestmen: The Biology of Opiliones pp. 247–265. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[E90] Edgar, A. L. 1990. Opiliones (Phalangida). In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 529–581. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[GG42] Goodnight, C. J., & M. L. Goodnight. 1942. New and little known Phalangida from Mexico. American Museum Novitates 1163: 1–16.

[GG43] Goodnight, C. J., & M. L. Goodnight. 1943. New and little known phalangids from the United States. American Midland Naturalist 29 (3): 643–656.

[GG45] Goodnight, C. J., & M. L. Goodnight. 1945. Additional Phalangida from Mexico. American Museum Novitates 1281: 1–17.

[GG46] Goodnight, C. J., & M. L. Goodnight. 1946. Additional studies of the phalangid fauna of Mexico. 1. American Museum Novitates 1310: 1–17.

[HT12] Hedin, M., N. Tsurusaki, R. Macías-Ordóñez & J. W. Shultz. 2012. Molecular systematics of sclerosomatid harvestmen (Opiliones, Phalangioidea, Sclerosomatidae): geography is better than taxonomy in predicting phylogeny. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 62 (1): 224–236.

[K14] Kurt, K. 2014. Updated checklist of harvestmen (Arachnida: Opiliones) in Turkey. Arch. Biol. Sci. 66 (4): 1617–1631.

[M78] Martens, J. 1978. Spinnentiere, Arachnida: Weberknechte, Opiliones. Gustav Fischer Verlag: Jena.

[MS16] Martens, J., & A. L. Schönhofer. 2016. The Leiobunum rupestre species group: resolving the taxonomy of four widespread European taxa (Opiliones: Sclerosomatidae). European Journal of Taxonomy 216: 1–35.

[N05] Novak, T. 2005. An overview of harvestmen (Arachnida: Opiliones) in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Natura Croatica 14 (4): 301–350.

[PP19] Palencia, L., E. Peñalver, C. E. Prieto & F. J. Poyato-Ariza. 2019. First fossil harvestmen (Arachnida: Opiliones) from Spain and notes on the fossil record of Opiliones. Palaeontologica Electronica 22.1.5A: 1–18.

[PW17] Prieto, C. E., & H. Wijnhoven. 2017. A new Leiobunum species from the Iberian Peninsula (Opiliones: Sclerosomatidae: Leiobuninae). Revista Ibérica de Aracnología 30: 3–10.

[R12] Roewer, C.-F. 1912. Revision der Opiliones Palpatores (=Opiliones Plagiostethi). II. Teil: Familie der Phalangiidae. (Subfamilien: Sclerosomini, Oligolophini, Phalangiini). Abhandlungen aus dem Gebiete der Naturwissenschaften, herausgegeben vom Naturwissenschaftlichen Verein in Hamburg 20 (1): 1–295.

[R23] Roewer, C.-F. 1923. Die Weberknechte der Erde: Systematische Bearbeitung der bisher bekannnten Opiliones. Gustav Fischer: Jena.

[R57] Roewer, C. F. 1957. Über Oligolophinae, Caddoinae, Sclerosomatinae, Leiobuninae, Neopilioninae und Leptobuninae (Phalangiidae, Opiliones Palpatores). Senckenbergiana Biologica 38 (5–6): 323–358.

[S08] Shultz, J. W. 2008. Leiobunum nigripes is a junior synonym of Leiobunum verrucosum (Opiliones, Sclerosomatidae). Journal of Arachnology 36 (1): 184–186.

[S02] Staręga, W. 2002. Baltic amber harvestmen (Opiliones) from Polish collections. Annales Zoologici 52 (4): 601–604.

[T85] Tsurusaki, N. 1985. Taxonomic revision of the Leiobunum curvipalpe-group (Arachnida, Opiliones, Phalangiidae). I. hikocola-, hiasai-, kohyai-, and platypenis-subgroups. Journal of the Faculty of Science of the Hokkaido University VI, Zoology 24: 1–42.

[TM00] Tsurusaki, N., & H. Minato. 2000. Opiliones of Wakayama Prefecture, Honshu, Japan. Nankiseibutu 42 (1): 3–8.

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