Salda pallipes, copyright Stephanie Boucher.

Belongs within: Panheteroptera.

The Leptopodomorpha are a group of large-eyed, predatory bugs most commonly found on the margins of ponds and streams. They are united by adaptations to a side-by-side copulatory position, with the male abdomen possessing an apparatus for grasping the female (Schuh & Polhemus 1980). The fore wing is elytriform or bears open cells on the apical area in Leptopodoidea whereas members of the Saldoidea have four or five closed cells on the membrane of the fore wing (Carver et al. 1991).

<==Leptopodomorpha [Acanthioideae, Leptopinae] SP80
|  i. s.: Britannicola GE05
|         Helenosaldula aberrans SP80
|         Archegocimicidae [Archaegocimicidae, Diatilidae, Eonabidae] GE05
|           |–Saldonia sibirica SP02
|           `–Sondalia kovalevi Popov 1988 RJ93
|–Leptopodoidea SP80
|    |–Omaniidae SP80
|    |    |–Omania SP80
|    |    |    |–O. coleoptrata SP80
|    |    |    `–O. marksae WEE70
|    |    `–Corallocoris SP80
|    |         |–C. marksae CGW91
|    |         `–C. nauruensis SP80
|    `–Leptopodidae SP80
|         |–Leptosaldinae SP80
|         |    |–Leptosalda chiapensis Cobben 1971 P92
|         |    `–Saldolepta Schuh & Polhemus 1980 SP80
|         |         `–S. kistnerorum SP80
|         `–Leptopodinae SP80
|              |–Patapius spinosus SP80
|              |–Valleriola wilsoni SP80, CGW91
|              |–Erianotus lanosus SP80
|              |–Martiniola SP80
|              |–Leotichius [Leotichiidae] SP80
|              |    `–L. speluncarum SP80
|              `–Leptopus RD77
|                   |–L. littoralis G20
|                   `–L. marmoratus RD77
`–Saldoidea SP80
|–Aepophilus [Aepophilidae] SP80
|    `–A. bonnairei SP80
`–Saldidae [Acanthiidae] SP80
|  i. s.: Micracanthia ripula SP80
|         Ioscytus nasti D62
|         Teoleuca D62
|         Lampracanthia D62
|         Oreokora Drake 1962 [=Oreocora] D62
|           |–*O. chilensis (Blanchard 1852) (see below for synonymy) D62
|           |–O. amazona (Drake 1955) [=Pentacora amazona] D62
|           |–O. andensis (Distant 1893) [=Acanthia andensis; incl. Pentacora bruesi Drake 1949] D62
|           |–O. angusta (Drake & Carvalho 1948) [=Pentacora angusta] D62
|           |–O. bacayana (Drake 1955) [=Pentacora bacayana] D62
|           |–O. bergi (Haglund 1899) [=Salda bergi; incl. Saldula lynchi Drake & Carvalho 1948] D62
|           |–O. doeringi (Drake & Carvalho 1948) [=Saldula doeringi] D62
|           |–O. perula (Drake 1955) [=Pentacora perula] D62
|           |–O. pillaona (Drake 1955) D62
|           |–O. regilla (Drake 1955) [=Pentacora regilla] D62
|           |–O. rogeri (Kirkaldy 1899) [=Acanthia rogeri] D62
|           `–O. sola (Drake & Carvalho 1948) [=Saldula sola] D62
|         Pelachoris Drake 1962 D62
|           `–*P. leucographa [=Pentacora leucographa] D62
|–Mesolygaeus [Enicocoridae, Enicocorinae, Mesolygaeidae, Xishanidae] ZG05
|    `–M. laiyangensis Ping 1928 ZG05
|–Chiloxanthinae SP80
|    |–Enalosalda SP80
|    `–+–Paralosalda SP80
|       `–+–Chiloxanthus SP80
|          `–Pentacora SP80
|               |–P. salina D62
|               `–P. sphacelata (Uhler 1877) (see below for synonymy) D62
`–Saldinae SP80
|  i. s.: Saldula CGW91
|           |–S. brevicornis CGW91
|           |–S. hirsuta D62
|           |–S. orthochila RD77
|           |–S. pallipes SP80
|           |–S. palustris (Douglas 1874) [=Salda palustris; incl. Saldula fernaldi Drake 1949] D62
|           `–S. pexa Drake 1950 [=S. hirsuta pexa] D62
|–Salduncula SP80
`–+–Saldoidini SP80
|    |–Orthophrys SP80
|    `–Saldoida D62
`–Salda D62 [Saldini SP80]
|–S. coxalis [incl. S. argentina] D62
|–S. exigua P92
|–S. littoralis RD77
|–S. nobilis [incl. S. nobilis var. reuteri] H01
`–S. pallipes H01

*Oreokora chilensis (Blanchard 1852) [=Acanthia chilensis, Salda chilensis; incl. A. araucanica Kirkaldy 1889] D62

Pentacora sphacelata (Uhler 1877) [=Salda sphacelata, Saldula sphacelata; incl. Salda rubromaculata Heidemann 1901, Pentacora rubromaculata] D62

*Type species of generic name indicated


[CGW91] Carver, M., G. F. Gross & T. E. Woodward. 1991. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, cicadas, aphids, scale insects etc.) In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1 pp. 429–509. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[D62] Drake, C. J. 1962. Synonymic data and two new genera of shore-bugs (Hemiptera: Saldidae). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 75: 115–124.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[H01] Horváth, G. 1901. Hemipterák [Hemiptera]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 245–274. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[P92] Poinar, G. O., Jr. 1992. Life in Amber. Stanford University Press: Stanford.

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms’ General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

[RJ93] Ross, A. J., & E. A. Jarzembowski. 1993. Arthropoda (Hexapoda; Insecta). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 363–426. Chapman & Hall: London.

[SP80] Schuh, R. T., & J. T. Polhemus. 1980. Analysis of taxonomic congruence among morphological, ecological and biogeographic data sets for the Leptopodomorpha (Hemiptera). Systematic Zoology 29 (1): 1–26.

[SP02] Shcherbakov, D. E., & Yu. A. Popov. 2002. Superorder Cimicidea Laicharting, 1781: Order Hemiptera Linné, 1758. The bugs, cicadas, plantlice, scale insects, etc. [=Cimicida Laicharting, 1781, =Homoptera Leach, 1815+Heteroptera Latreille, 1810). In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 143–157. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[WEE70] Woodward, T. E., J. W. Evans & V. F. Eastop. 1970. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, etc.) In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 387–457. Melbourne University Press.

[ZG05] Zhang, J., V. B. Golub, Y. A. Popov & D. E. Shcherbakov. 2005. Ignotingidae fam. nov. (Insecta: Heteroptera: Tingoidea), the earliest lace bugs from the Upper Mesozoic of eastern China. Cretaceous Research 26: 783–792.

Last updated: 14 May 2022.

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